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WATSON'S 

MAGAZINE 



Vol. XV : No. 6 OCTOBER, 1912 Price, 10 Cents 



THOS. E. W^ATSON, EDITOR 



Articles by the Editor in this Number 



The Story of the South and West 

Chapter XXI 

The Roman Catholic Hierarchy 

Chapter XXVII 

An Open Letter to Cardinal Gibbons 

No. 6 

Commodore John Barry to Have a Mon- 
ument, Founded on a False Claim 

Educational Department 

Book Reviews 



Second Instalment of "The Secret In- 
structions of the Jesuits'!,^, 



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Watson's Magazine 



Entered as second-class matter January 4, 1911. at the Post Office at Thomson, Georgia, 

Under the Act of March 3, 1879. 

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OCTOBER 



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No. 6 



CONTENTS 

FRONTISPIECE — Golden Rod H. E. Harmau 

SERIALS AND EDITORIALS — Thos. E. AVatson. 

THE STORY OF THE SOUTH AND WEST — Chapter XXI .... 409 



THE ROMAN CATHOLIC HIERARCHY — Chapter XXVII 
A MONUMENT FOUNDED ON A FALSE CLAIM 
THE PRINCIPLES OF POPULISM TRIUMPHANT 
OPEN LETTERS TO CARDINAL GIBBONS, NO. 6 

EDUCATIONAL 

BOOK REVIEWS 



CONSEQUENCES — (A poem) Ralph M. Thomson . 

HUMANITY'S PROGRESS IN A FEDERAL PRISON Alice Louise Lytle . 

THE SUPERSTITIOUS FEAR OF LIGHTNING IN COLONIAL DAYS 

A TRAGEDY IN W^AX-WORK 

SPANISH PROTESTANTS IN THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY 

A SOUTHERNER IN THE W^EST .1. M. Dimick 

DEAR LOVE GRANT ME BUT THIS — (A poem) Alonzo Rice 

PATRIOTISM BEGETS HERESY Chattin Bradway 

THE RESURBECTED SOUTH Farrar Newberry 

THE SECRET INSTRUCTIONS OF THE JESUITS 

RICHARD REALF Don Platt 



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Golden-Rod 

H. E. Harman 

The Autumn sunbeams come in rifts of gold 
Across the fields and by the lapping sea, 

And as I pass, the tufted golden-rod 
Bows royally in silence unto me. 

Though heralder of Winter's coming stay. 
And soft reminder of the Summer dead, 

No arrogance of manner marks thy day. 
Oh, golden-rod. And on thy golden head 

The crown of fulness, of completeness rests, 
The sunshine of an hundred Summer days, 

And garnered love that we have won and lost, 
Thy silence keeps. And all the burnished ways 

Of woodland vale and sedgy-covered fields 
Are gladdened by thy presence, for the sod 

Sends up its dearest offering of the year 
In thy rich colors, pensive golden-rod. 



Watson's Magazine 



THOS. E. WATSON, Editor 



THe Story of the South and West 



Chapter XXI. 



QUEEN ANNE of England 
departed this life on the 
first day of August, 1714; 
and !)y October of the same year 
the Governor of Maryland began to 
hear rumors of the event. 

To make certain of a fact so 
important to him in his official 
capacity, Governor Hart, on Octo- 
ber 9, adjourned his Assembly, and 
set out "on a long and expensive 
journey to Philadelphia." 

That city was the capital of the 
adjoining State, and can now be 
reached from any railroad point in 
Maryland in a few hours. 

It appears that it took Governor 
Hart about a week to reach Phila- 
delphia, and about as long to make 
the return trip, for we find him 
back at his post of duty, at St. 
Mary's on the 27th of October. 

He had been able to get hold of 
a London newspaper, in which 
the announcement of the Queen's 
death appeared ; but no official 
notice from the English govern- 
ment had been received in any of 
the Colonies. 

I mention this detail as a strik- 
ing illustration of the difference 
between those days, and ours. 

Following the Protestant revolu- 
tion in the Mother Country, there 
was an overthrow of the Roman 



Catholics by the Protestants in 
Maryland. 

A small battle was fought, quite 
a number of men were shot down, 
and practically all of the Catholics 
were captured — including their 
leader. 

King William III., the Protes- 
tant monarch of Great Britain, 
annulled Lord Baltimore's powers 
over Maryland ; and the colony had 
been governed, for 20 years, by the 
Crown of England, when Benedict 
Leonard Calvert, oldest son and 
heir of the third Lord Baltimore 
publicly renounad the Romish 
errors. 

There is no evidence that he 
changed his religion to put himself 
in position to regain the Maryland 
palatinate, when his father should 
die, though, of course, sijch a sus- 
picion is natural to the suspicious. 

It seems to me that none of these 
Calverts cared much about religion. 
When the first Calvert turned 
Catholic, he knew perfectly well 
that at heart the Stuart dynasty 
was Romanist ; and there is a vehe- 
ment presumption that he knew his 
change of faith would make him a 
favorite with the son and grand- 
sons of Mary, Queen of Scots, 
whose lovely and scheme-hatching 
head a Protestant queen had 
caused to be chopped off. 



410 



WATSON'S MAGAZINE. 



In no other way can we explain 
the motive for the extraordinary 
and continuous rewards heaped 
upon this apostate from Protes- 
tantism by an ostensibly Protes- 
tant court. 

At all events, Benedict Leonard 
Calvert joined the Episcopal 
Church, and his offended fatlier 
cut off his allowance — whereujion 
Queen Anne placed him upon the 
backs of the English taxpayers, to 
keep cheerful comi)auy with a host 
of other well-born dead-beats 
whose pensions were made in P)rit- 
ish shops, mines and lields. 

It happened that Benedict Leon- 
ard Calvert died so soon after the 
demise of his father that the 
restoration of the. Maryland palati- 
nate never was made to him at all. 
His son, Charles, 5tli Lord Balti- 
more became the 4th Proprietary, 
under a grant of the Crown, one of 
the reasons stated being ''to give 
encouragement to the education of 
the numerous issue of so nohle a 
family in the Protestant religion." 

At a later day, when the Mary- 
land Catholics sent emissaries to 
London, to poison the mind of this 
Lord Baltimore against Governor 
Hart, on account of the laws which 
persecuted the papists, they utterly 
failed of their j^urpose. 

The Governor told the Proprie- 
tary the truth, as to the matter, and 
received this reply, which you will 
not find in any other history what- 
soever : 

"We are so far from imagining 
that any countenance should he 
given them (the Catholic priests) 
in that pernicious practice of per- 
verting people TO THE ROMISH 
SUPERSTITION, that tve very 
well approve of the laivs made to 



prevent it." (Baltimore's letter of 
Nov. ]6, 1717.) 

In this connection, I may add 
that the first Lord Baltimore 
demanded of the Pope the recall of 
the Jesuits from Maryland; and 
that the Pope was glad to compro- 
mise by compelling Jesuits to cede 
to the Proprietary the lands which 
they had secured from the Indians. 

Such a bad taste did the inter- 
ference of priests in i)olitics leave 
in the mouths of the Marylanders, 
that they enacted laws which pre- 
vent donations by deed or will to 
churches, religious orders, &c. 

To this very day, no priest, or 
preacher, can legally hold a seat in 
the Maryland legislature. 

***** 

In colonial times, deer, wild- 
turkey and canvas-back duck were 
so common, that people would com- 
plain of having them so constantly 
on the table. There is in existence 
a curious document — a contract 
between an employer and some 
employees engaged for public 
imi^rovements — in which the con- 
tractor binds himself not to compel 
his hirelings to eat canvas-back 
duck every day. 

(It is said that the name ''can- 
vas-back," grew out of the method 
of shipping these birds, in the early 
days, when they were put in cloth 
cases, as fine hams now are. "Can- 
vas back" was stamped on each 
package, meaning, "Return the 
cloth sack.") 

The squirrels were so innumer- 
able as to be a pest. Cornfields, 
&.Q.J along the countless swamps, 
were simjDly destroyed. Bounties 
were offered by the proprietarial 
government, and the squirrels were 



THE STORY OF THE SOUTH AND WEST. 



411 



slaiightored in almost incredible 
numbers. 

In one year, the bounties for the 
killing- of the nuisances, amounted 
to $35,000, at a time when money 
was worth at least twenty times 
what it is now. 

In those days every qualified 
voter had to vote, or pay a fine. 
That was a good law. 

The franchise was restricted to 
citizens who paid taxes to the 
extent of 40 shillings. Therefore, 
practically all the freemen were 
electors. , 

Tobacco was the staple product, 
and was the money in use. Of 
silver and gold, the Marylanders 
had little or none. 

Lawyers were paid in tobacco, 
and the amount of the fee was fixed 
by law. 

Jurors were paid in tobacco, and 
fines were levied in tobacco. 

Of course, the bounties for the 
destruction of wolves, crows and 
squirrels, were i)aid in tobacco. 

Owing to England's navigation 
laws, the Maryland planters had no 
other market to sell their tobacco 
in, than England's; hence they suf- 
fered robbery in London, as the 
Virginians did. 

***** 

A murrain broke out among the 
cattle in Maryand, and great num- 
bers perished. The pestilence 
spread to the people, and they too 
were swept away by the hundred. 

It was discovered that the waters 
of a mineral spring in St. Mary's 
county were beneficial to the suf- 
ferers. Thereupon, the Assembly 
acquired title to the spring, built 
huts for the accommodation of the 



poor, and established the place as 

a Sanitorium — the first in America. 

***** 

Nearly all of these early manors 
had water-fronts, and neighbors 
visited each other in boats. 

Hospitality was unbounded: 
every visitor from the outside 
world was a sort of news-gazette, 
bringing to the mansion house 
information not obtainable in any 
other way. 

If the visitor happened to be a 
traveller, or recent arrival from 
Europe, we can imagine with what 
eagerness he was questioned about 
what was going on in the Old 
World. 

We are told that the lords of the 
manor lived joyously, with plenty 
of the best to eat and plenty of the 
best to drink. We are told of the 
rum punch and the whiskey jug and 
the cider stew — of the plenteous 
venison, bear-meat, swine meat, 
turkey, ducks, fish, crabs, oysters, 
wild geese, &c. 

(The merits of the terrapin were 
not discovered till after 1800.) 

We can see the jovial, hospitable 
lords sitting comfortably before 
open hearths, upon which blaze and 
crackle the logs of oak and hickory. 

We see the tall wax candles, 
lighting and perfuming the room, 
for they are made of the myrtle 
berry. 

If we wait until court day, we 
shall see the freemen of the manor 
assemble to administer justice in 
that little commonwealth. 

AYe will witness the curious 
feudal custom of the tenant coming 
into court to acknowledge fealty, 
and to receive the rod, or other 
token, which puts him in possession 
of his land. 



412 



WATSON'S MAGAZINE. 



We will hear him promise to pay 
so many pecks of corn, and so 
many chickens for the rent of his 
holding. 

We may hear the indignant 
jurors who presented the Indian 
King, Chaptico, ''for killing a wild 
sow and took her piggs and raysed 
a stock of them." 

Why the King should have been 
presented for killing a ^vild sow, is 
more than I can explain. 

In another of these provincial 
courts, we shall see a white man 
arraigned for killing an .Indian, 
without provocation. The accused 
confessed the deed. The jury 
returned a verdict of ''Not 
Guilty." 

When the governor remon- 
strated, the jurors explained that 
the Indian was a pagan, and not 
protected by law — besides, Virginia 
had never set the precedent of 
making Indian-killing "murther." 

It is a pleasure to record the fact 
that the witch-hunt mania never 
afflicted Maryland, or any other 
colony, or territory of the South 
and West. It wrought havoc in 
Europe and in New England, and 
is one of the most terrible instances 
of what poor human-kind are cap- 
able of, when wrought up by relig- 
ious mania and delusions. 

***** 

Let us make honorable mention 
of Francis Nicholson. In Virginia, 
where he was governor, he founded 
William and Mary College. 

He removed to Maryland, and 
became governor of the province. 
He succeeded in prevailing upon 
the Assembly to establish a free 
school at Annapolis — 1696 — to 
which he gave the name of King 



William. An export duty was laid 
on furs to support this and other 
free schools. 

Many a man better known to 
fame than Francis Nicholson has 
done far less to deserve remem- 
brance. 

Incidentally it was he who 
removed the capital of Maryland 
from Catholic St. Mary's to Puri- 
tan and Quaker Providence, whose 
name was soon changed to 

Annapolis. 

* * » * * 

There were vexatious disputes 
between Maryland and her neigh- 
bors, concerning boundary lines. 

Finally Charles Mason and Jere- 
miah Dixon, "two eminent English 
mathemeticians, were employed by 
the Proprietaries" to run the 
Maryland line. They began the 
survey in 1763: the Indians 
stopped them in 1767. By that 
time they had marked the boundary 
with stone pillars and rock piles 
244 miles from the Delaware River. 

This survey is the well-known 
"Mason and Dixon's line,"- which 
separated the North from the 

South. 

***** 

Maryland had her Indian trou- 
bles, but they are not worth record- 
ing. 

The Baltimo-res also had much 
difficulty in dealing with William 
Clayborne, of Virginia, who had 
made a settlement on Kent Island, 
prior to the grant of the palatinate 
to George Calvert. 

Clayborne was an obstinate per- 
son, and he long contended for his 
Island — being intent on becoming 
rich by way of the Indian trade. 
There was some slight fighting 
between the disputants, and several 



CONSEQUENCES. 



413 



men were killed; but it does not 
appear that Clayborne himself was 
ever present when the bullets were 
flying. 

Lord Baltimore, in the end, 
recovered peaceable possession of 
the mooted territory. 

The fig-lit on the Pocomoke 
between two pinnaces of Baltimore 
and one small vessel of Clayborne 
was, indeed, the first of naval 
engagements in American waters — 
date April 23, 1C35. 

Baltimore's men won a victory, 
and captured Clayborne 's armed 
shallop, the Cockatrice. 



The Calvert family ran out, in 
the person of Frederick, the 6th and 
last Lord Baltimore. 

Tie was a decadent of the vilest 
type, llgured as defendant in one of 
the most abominable cases in the 
criminal records of Great Britain. 
He escaped conviction on a techni- 
cality. 

This despised wretch died in 
1771, leaving no legitimate child. 

He willed the palatinate to his 
bastard, Henry Hanford; but 
before a lawsuit between himself 
and Louisa, sister of his father, 
could be adjudicated, Maryland had 
passed into the Old Confederation 
of the thirteen United States. 



Consequences 

Ralph M. Thomson 

I grieved for one^ a protege of woe^ 

Whose tattling eyes hetrmjed a heart distressed; 
But, ah, the wretched vagrant did not know, 

For what I thought I hid icithi7i my hreast. 
I pitied one, a ragged toaif astray, 

With snnhen cheeks and body illy fed; 
And gave him tcords of counsel to allay 

His pangs of hunger, hut denied Mm bread. 

I felt for one, a beggar in the throng. 

And sought to aid him in each icay I coidd; 

And, oh, the heaven in his grateful song — 
The joy I lived from having done some good! 



The Roman Catholic Hierarchy: The Dead= 

liest Menace to Our Liberties and 

Our Civilization 

[For the individual Roman Catholic, who finds happiness in his faith, I have no word 
of unkindness. Some of my best friends are devout believers in their "Holy Father." If 
anything contained in the series of chapters dealing with the hierarchy causes them pain, 
and alienates tlieir good will, I shall deplore it. 

The Roman Catholic ORGANIZATION is the object of my profoundest detestation — 
NOT the belief of THl<J INDIVIDUAL.] 

Chapter XXVII. 



TUFi worsliip of Mary is based 
upon the teaching that she 
was the one human being 
wlio, by divine conception, gave 
birtli to a God, and tliat slie 
remained a Virgin all her life. 

To express it differently, the 
Roman C'atliolics teach ''the per- 
petual virginity" of Mary. 

Let lis apply our common sense 
to that dogma: 

If Mary had had no intention of 
becoming a wife, in the natural 
sense of that term, why did she 
take a husband! 

If Jose]ih had no intention of 
claiming his rights as a husband, 
why did he marry this particular 
Jewess? 

Are we not told that he found 
his bride with child, and that his 
very reasonable dissatisfaction 
was quieted by a revelation that no 
human lover had anything to do 
with her? 

Whether Mary should not have 
told Joseph of her condition before 
she married him, I need not here 
discuss. 

But that which seems perfectly 
clear to me is, that if she, the 
immaculate, meant to remain 
untouched of man, she did a cruel 
injustice to Joseph when she 
became his wife. 



Would any Jew who was normal 
and uxorious, and able-bodied as 
we must suppose this Galilean car- 
penter to have been, remained for 
more than twenty years the hus- 
band of a woman who insisted on 
retaining her maidenly state? 

Such a thing is an utter impos- 
sibility. 

So much for the common sense 
test: now let us appeal to the 
Bible. 

After Matthew had written of 
the unhappiness of Joseph, in find- 
ing that his bride was in the family 
way, the Apostle states that the 
young husband did not have the 
usual consummation of his mar- 
riage until after Jesus was born. 

In his wonderfully artful and 
deceitful book— The Faith of Our 
Fathers — Cardinal Gibbons argues 
that, because the raven never did 
return to the ark, although the text 
reads ''did not return till the 
waters had dried up on the earth," 
the words of Matthew must be con- 
strued to mean that Joseph never 
did have carnal knowledge of his 
wife. 

Well, it seems to me that the two 
cases are as different from each 
other as any two cases could be. 

There was nothing to tempt the 
raven back to the ark: there was 



THE ROMAN CATHOLIC HIERARCHY. 



415 



everything to lure liim to stay 
away. 

But in the case of the yonng hus- 
band, Joseph, who liad already 
been constrained to deny himself 
the customary pleasure, privileges 
and duties of the nuptial couch, we 
are not given any reason whatever 
for his continued self-denial. 

If he did not intend to make 
Mary his wife, after the manner ot 
all connubial flesh, why did he not 
divorce her as he had first intended 
to do, when he found her pregnant? 

Between a raven, let loose from a 
cage, and a young, lusty Jew living 
with a young, buxom Jewess, under 
the bonds of lawful wedlock, there 
js a difference which is sufficient 
for all reasonable purposes. 

The rule of conduct for the 
released raven could not be applied 
to a young Hebrew couple, by any 
one who had not surrendered his 
common sense to superstition. 

As to whether Matthew meant 
anything when he referred to Jesus 
as Mary's "first-born" I leave to 
the reader. 

But it does seem to me that if 
Jesus was the only child of Mary, 
that fact would have been stated 
somewhere m the Bible. 

Throughout sacred and profane 
history, we find the continual men- 
tion of the only son, and the only 
daughter; and we seldom, or never, 
have an only child described as the 
"first born," excepting in books 
whose context shows that it was an 
only child. 

Cardinal Gibbons mentions 
Machir, the "first-born" of Man- 
nesses, who had no other off-spring. 
But the Cardinal learned that fact 
from the Bible itself. 



He cannot learn anything similar 
about Mar}^ and her "first-l)orn." 

The Apostle tells us— Matt. 5() et 
seq. — that Jesus had four brothers, 
James, Joses, Simon and Judas. 
He also had several sisters. 

Cardinal Gibbons guilefully 
asserts that the Gospels disclose 
the fact that these children were 
those of "another Mary." 

How strange that the neighbors 
of Joseph and the Virgin Mary did 
not know this. 

Those neighbors marvelled at the 
divine powers that Christ was 
assuming. 

To paraphrase their language, 
tliey said: 

"Was not this young man reared 
in our midst I Did he not work at 
the carpenter's trade I Is not he 
the son of Joseph, the carpenter? 
Do' we not know his four l)rotliers 
and 'all' of his sisters? Are they 
not here with us? From whence 
then does he get his divine 
attributes?" 

If the neighbors were talking of 
the sons and daughters of "another 
Mary," why did the questions of 
the neighbors direct themselves to 
Jesus? 

In Mark— HI. 21-31— we read of 
how the mother and brothers of 
Jesus came to visit Him while he 
was teaching. They thought He 
had gone crazy, and were anxious 
about Him. 

He refused to see them, and went 
on teaching. 

In another passage in Mark, we 
are told that this anxious mother 
and these anxious brothers tried to 
persuade Jesus to quit teaching: 
an evidence that His own family 
had not become His converts. 

Elsewhere in the New Testament, 



416 



WATSON'S MAGAZINE. 



the designation of those who are 
Christ's brothers in the flesh, and 
those wlio are His disciples, is plain 
and unmistakable. Only a Jesuit, 
trained to dishonest casuistry, 
could even attempt to maintain that 
Jesus did not have brothers and 
sisters, in the flesh, the off-spring 
of a common mother. 

In verse 12 of John II. we read 
that ''After this, He went to Ca])er- 
naum, He and His mother and His 
disci'ples." 

Could any distinction be more 
clearly drawn? 

In John — VII. 3. — we are told, of 
Jesus, that not even His brothers 
believed in Him. 

If, as the Romanists contend, the 
word "brother" meant "discii)le" 
— a believer — what sense would 
such a verse make? 

John would be virtually saying 
that ''not even His believers 
believed in Him." 

In the Apocryphal Gospels, some 
of which bear a decided resem- 
blance to those chosen as canonical, 
Jesus is said to have had brothers 
and sisters in the flesh, the children 
of Mar3\ 

For instance, in the Ebionitic 
gospel we are told : 

"It was told him: Behold, your 
mother and your brothers are 
standing outside. He said: Who 
are my mother and brothers? And 
he stretched out his hand over his 
disciples and said: These are my 
brothers and my mother and sis- 
ters, who do the commands of mv 
father." 

The following extract from an 
article by A. Kampmeier, in The 
Open Court, may interest the 
reader : 

Eusebius in His. Eccl., III., 20, 



cites the following from the Pales- 
tinian Ilegesippus, born of Jewish 
parents and member of the Jerusa- 
leniic church (died 180 A. D.). It 
does not matter whether the story 
of Hegesippus is strictlj^ fact "or 
not, but the stor}^ supports the tra- 
dition of the brothers of Jesus. I 
translate: "In those times there 
were yet some of the sons of Judas, 
a brother of the Ijord according to 
the flesh, whom they had accused as 
being from the race of David. 
These Pribocatus brought befoi-c 
the Emperor Doniitian, for he 
feared the coming of Christ just as 
Herod. And he asked them 
whether thoy were from David, and 
they said so. Then he asked thein, 
how much ])ro])erty and money thoy 
had. Then they both answered 
that they only had 9000 denaria, of 
which each had half. But that they 
did not have it in silver but in the 
value of thirty-nine pletlira of land, 
from which they paid tribute and 
lived by working it themselves. 
They thereupon showed their 
hands, their bodies bearing witness 
to their hare] toil and their callous 
hands to continuous labor. Asked 
about Christ and his kingdom, of 
what kind it vv^as and where and 
when it would app-ear, they 
answered that it was not a worldly 
or earthlj^ one, but heavenly; that 
it would appear at the end of days, 
when Christ would come in glory to 
judge the living and dead and to 
give each according to his deserts." 

* ;!: * :|,- * 

It was not until the Romanist 
church began to evolve a ]:)anthe- 
ism, and a worship of a Virgin 
Mother, that the casuists were 
heard to deny that Mary had chil- 
dren by the man, Joseph. To 



THE ROMAN CATHOLIC HIERARCHY. 



417 



swear these children lo "another 
Mary," became a necessity. Their 
plans required an immaculate, per- 
petual Virgin, like the ancient Ori- 
ental Mother of God and Empress 
of the Heavens. 

Before such an impudent imx:)os- 
ture could be established, those 
numerous sons and daughters of 
Joseph, the carpenter, had to be 
assigned to "another Mary." 

Even an ignorant peon of IMexico 
could hardly be expected to believe 
in the "perpetual virginity" of a 
lirolific Hebrew wife. 

iVway with those sons and daugh- 
ters ! 

Give them to "another Marv." 



Then, we will have a perpetual 
virgin, Mary. 

(Also, a virgin husband, inci- 
dentally.) 

Also, perpetual virgins, the nuns. 

Also, perpetual virgins, the 
priests and monks. 

Also, a perpetual virgin, our 
Pa])a, at Rome. 

The whole thing would be laugh- 
able, were not the whole thing so 
terrible. 

And in the brazen effrontery 
which denies that Mary was the 
mother of a houseful of Jewish 
children, we have another reason 
why the Roman priests do not 
want the people to read the Bible. 



pT?^N 








. (r- 



Humanity's Progress in a Federal Prison 



Alice Louise Lytic 



THE Federal prison in Atlanta, 
Georgia, has sheltered a goodly 
number of distinguished inmates. 
Men of brains and ability who had, 
with misdirected energy and zeal, 
made themselves liable to varying 
terms of imprisonment. 

Of these distinguished ones the pub- 
lic prints have written largely, of the 
rank and file — the men whose crimes 
have been of lesser flambuoyancy, little 
is known outside the prison walls. 

That many changes have occurred in 
the dealing of Uncle Sam with his 
criminals is evidenced b}^ a little paper 
issued from the prison; the name of 
the pajDer is "Good "Words." It is a 
handsomely printed little sheet, shows 
a "make-up" that will delight every 
printer, and is f)eculiar in that its con- 
tributors are nameless — the}^ are known 
only by numbers. 

A poet, sometime wrote : 

"Time to me this truth has taught, 

'Tis one worth revealing. 
More offend from want of thought. 

Than from want of feeling." 

That is as true now, as it ever was. 
The brains which go into the make-up 
of "Good Words," are brains of no 
mean order. 

The tone of the paper is optimistic 
in the extreme. This shows the 
splendid results which have been 
obtained by the system which is in 
vogue in the Atlanta prison. 

The Warden, Wm. H. Moyer, seems 
to be a man whose heart has not 
hardened and whose blood is still red. 
While there are no fulsome notices of 
him in ''Good Words," the casual men- 
tioning is always as that of one man, 
speaking of another — not that of a 
prisoner speaking of a warden. 

With the training the men get in 



various ways; the constant touch with 
the things which interest the people 
"outside," the "long term" man does 
not feel that horror of facing a world 
he has been so long shut off from; of 
meeting new conditions, having to 
become accustomed to changes insti- 
tuted during his period of "enforced 
retirement." 

Newspaper folk, by reason of their 
calling, seem prone to become hard- 
hearted and are seemingly indifferent 
to the things they write of and which 
are, in so large part connected with the 
tragedies, scandals, failures or weak- 
nesses of their fellow man. 

But, at heart, the newspaper folk are 
quick to recognize worth, generous in 
their appreciation of the man who is 
trying to "make good," quick to resent 
the unfair deal, and willing to lend the 
helping hand to the one who is really 
anxious to "get back and stick." 

With this in view, the prison paper, 
"Good Words," will help the men who 
are putting their talents to the making 
of the little paper which must be of 
intense interest to those "inside the 
walls," and the little grain of faith and 
hope which we cling to as long as life 
lasts, must be nurtured and strength- 
ened in many a breast when the cheer- 
ing, sensible, heart-to-heart articles are 
read. 

There is no maudlin sympathy any- 
where in the make-up of the paper. 

There is a determination to make 
the best of things ; a grim resolution to 
believe tliat the Avorst has arrived, and 
better times are ahead. 

Under the head of "One year of 
prison progress," we read, from the 
September issue of the paper: 

During the fiscal year several 
changes have been made in the meth- 
ods previously in. vogue in this peni- 



HUMANITY IN FEDERAL PRISON. 



419 



tentiary. These changes were made 
either at the suggestion or with the 
approval of Attorney-General Wicker- 
sham and have all tended toward send- 
ing the discharged prisoner out into the 
world with a sincere desire for his own 
improvement rather than with a desire 
for revenge upon society for either real 
or fancied grievances. 

The early part of the fiscal year wit- 
nessed the advent of a new Deputy 
Warden who inaugurated a humane 
'"man to man" square-deal policy in 
handling refractory prisoners. A civi- 
lian musical director of recognized 
ability was appointed about the same 
time, and within the year he has suc- 
ceeded in organizing and educating an 
orchestra which is probably the equal 
of any orchestra in any similar institu- 
tion in the country. 

Then came the permission for the 
prisoners to play baseball every Satur- 
day afternoon. Regulation grounds 
were prepared; up-to-date baseball 
equipment was purchased, and late in 
the month of September the first game 
was played, and from that day the 
games have proved of absorbing inter- 
est. During the ball games the prison- 
ers are permitted to smoke, play musi- 
cal instruments, play games, cheer, 
laugh, talk and mingle freely, provided 
they refrain from profane or vulgar 
language and rowdyism. Early in 
March a league of eight clubs was 
organized. 

March, 1912, also witnessed the ini- 
tial number of Good Words, a paper 
printed and contributed to by the pris- 
oners. 

Upon Thanksgiving Day the Warden 
made the announcement that the pris- 
oners would be allowed to converse 
freely during meals, thereby abolishing 
the "rule of silence." About that time 
the Warden issued an order granting 
such prisoners as desired it the oppor- 
tunity of having a private interview 
with him on stated days of the week. 
The prison school began holding ses- 



sions five afternoons each week during 
the Fall term. 

During the Fall, Saturday became 
a day set apart for bathing, shaving, 
exercising and recreation. 

An order was issued abolishing the 
stripes, even as a punishment, the pres- 
ent regulation uniform for prisoners 
being of light blue cloth. 

An oculist is employed to visit the 
prison one-half day each week, giving 
the prisoners' eyes the necessary atten- 
tion and providing them with glasses 
at the Government's exj)ense. 

A dentist is also employed for the 
purpose of giving the teeth of the pris- 
oners the necessary attention, extract- 
ing, filling, and plate work being done 
at the expense of the Government. 

The prisoners are furnished with 
plain paper upon which to write their 
out-going letters. A part of the orches- 
tra furnishes music at the mid-day 
meal, and last, but not least, the old 
style desk-like tables have been removed 
and ordinary dining-room tables substi- 
tuted. The dining-room itself has been 
entirely renovated and repainted, the 
wooden floor having been removed and 
a concrete one substituted. 

These changes are mentioned "LEST 
WE FORGET." 

That doesn't look like cheese-paring 
in the matter of appropriations, does 
it? And it would seem that men Vv'ho 
had erred, but who were able still to 
retain the habits and customs of gen- 
tility, could start afresh when they had 
paid their penalt3^ 

The benefits of the parole sj^stem are 
not as generally understood as they 
might be. The law provides that a man 
who had served a third of his sentence 
might, at the direction of the Parole 
Board, be given conditional fueedom. 

The conditions were that he should 
engage in some honest calling; he was 
to keep always in touch with the Board, 
and was to report, on demand to it. 

In case a paroled man became 



420 



WATSON'S MAGAZINE. 



involved again in breaches of law, he 
would serve, in addition to his new 
sentence, the unexpired term from 
which he had been conditionally 
released. 

There was no system of espionage, 
simply a written report from the man 
himself, and perhaps an occasional call 
from the member of the commission in 
whose district he was. 

This law did not apply to life-term 
prisoners. We learn from the Septem- 



they shall have served at least fifteen 
years of their sentence, and that there 
is a reasonable probability that they 
will live and remain at liberty without 
violating the laws, and if in the opin- 
ion of the Parole Board such releases 
would not in any manner prove incom- 
patible with the welfare of society. 
This is" as it should be. 

The fact that a man having received 
a life sentence for a capital offense 
l^roves that his crime, where there is 




The Newly Furi.ished Dining Room 



ber number of '"Good Words" that a 
special bill was prepared to cover 
them. 

The editor-in-chief of the little paper 
thus sjDlendidly expresses himself in 
the matter: 

There was pending before the Senate 
of the United States, at the time of 
writing this article, a bill, introduced 
by Representative Howard of Georgia, 
extending to all Federal prisoners, 
serving a life sentence, the benefits of 
the Federal parole law; providing: 



no element of doubt, shoAved lack of 
premeditation. The crime may have 
been the result of an accident, death 
resulting where there Avas no intention 
to deprive of life. It may have been 
due to a sudden loss of control over the 
temper or passions. It may have been 
committed in self-defense or in the 
protection of loved ones. In cases 
where the evidence was purely circum- 
stantial there must have been some ele- 
ment of doubt, some lack of motive, or 
some mitigating circumstances that 
promjited the Court to exercise leni- 



HUMANITY IN FEDERAL PRISON. 



421 



ency and refrain from inflicting the 
extreme penalty. 

The responsibility for the crimes of 
many individuals, be they capital 
offenses or merely misdemeanors, 
reaches back further than the indi- 
vidual himself. In many cases where 
a capital offense has been committed, 
it was the direct result of hasty tem- 
per on the part of a grown spoilt child. 
The Law does not look into causes — it 
judges by effect. A youth, suffering 
from adenoids or other physical and 
mental defects, may commit a crime; 
the Law removes the youth, not the 
adenoids. 

A thorough investigation by an 
impartial Board would bring to light 
many reasons for the exercising of 
clemency even in cases where all ele- 
ment of doubt is absent. Paid prose- 
cutors seek only a convction. 

Life prisoners are, as a general rule, 
the most exemplary prisoners. Many 
of them are mild mannered, genial, 
and cause prison officials less trouble 
than any other class of men under 
their care, but the strain of constant 
imprisonment, and the mental wear 
and tear of hope often deferred must, 
after a lapse of years, tell on their 
minds. The human mind or brain 
must either improve or deteriorate. 

Remove a man from the softening 
influence of associations with a good 
Avoman; remove him from the world 
of men and affairs ; deprive him of the 
refining influence of associations with 
men of intellect and manners; force 
him into a deadly routine where each 
day, each month, and each year is but 
a repetition of the preceding one; 
never allow him to exercise his own 
faculties, compel him to live by rule 
and rote for thirty or forty years and 
wiiat have you left? Nothing but the 
merest outward semblance of a man. 
The man himself is as dead as if he had 
been executed years before; there 
remains of his former mental and 
physical capableness nothing but the 
shell. Some turn to religion as a 



solace; others to inventions, that their 
minds may be occupied ; many of these 
men have improved vastly in their 
mental capability, but this can only 
last up to a certain point which de- 
j)ends almost entirely upon the age 
and condition of the man mentally and 
physically at the time of his incarcera- 
tion. 

Is it not then to the best interest of 
society that this man, having repented 
of his crime and accomplished his part 
toward serving as an example to the 
rest of the world, should be granted a 
wise and rstraining parole at the expi- 
ration of ten or fifteen years of impris- 
onment, and be allowed to rejoin his 
family and friends and again exercise 
his God-given faculties for the benefit 
of himself and family, if not for the 
betterment of humanity? A^^at has 
society to gain if this man be kept 
behiiK^ the high gray walls for years 
and years, ever deluding himself with 
hope after hope and ever fighting 
against the inevitableness of fate until 
such a time as sans kin, sans friends, 
and sans life his mortal remains at last 
depart to their final resting place in 
an unkempt prson graveyard — a poor 
harvest for the Grim Reaper? Or 
what gain is it to society if, after thirty 
or forty years imprisonment, this man 
be granted a commutation of sentence 
or a pardon? He enters the outside 
world a veritable Rip van Winkle; he 
is like an ancient visitor from another 
planet; he is but a shell of his former 
self; all his kith and kin are dead 
or gone; there remains for him noth- 
ing but charity; he must rely on 
strangers to smooth his declining 
years; he has paid a terrible price for 
the act of a passionate moment. 

Admitting that crime should be pun- 
ished and that maudlin sentiment 
should not prevail, the fact remains 
that Justice should be tempered with 
mercy, for "Justice untempered with 
mercy becomes tyranny." 

The writer is personally acquainted 
with a great many of the men who are 



422 



WATSON'S MAGAZINE. 



serving life sentences; he comes in 
contact with these men every day; he 
knows them, from the God-fearing old 
gate-tender, who has been behind the 
walls for thirty-two years, to the 
youth, of a few months' stay, who is 
now facing the long and weary path 
the old gate-tender has trod. The wri- 
ter does not claim to be a keen student 
of human nature, but he does not hesi- 
tate to state that there is not one of 
these men with whom he is acquainted. 



is still danger that, if released, he 
would commit the same crime or some 
other equally heinous, then it Avere far 
better to commit him to an insane asy- 
lum where his mental trouble could 
have the proper treatmnt. A prison 
is no place for him. 

Some States grant all prisoners, 
including those serving a life sentence, 
a parole at the expiration of a definite 
number of years, and the results have 
proved, beyond the shadow of a doubt. 




The Summer Tent City 



that he does not believe to be worthy 
of trust to the fullest extent. 

To men such as these the parole law 
as extended to life prisoners, means a 
chance for a new life, oiDening up as it 
does an avenue toward rehabilitation. 
Reformation has already taken place. 

The Law, where there is an element 
of doubt, in a capital offense, denies 
the prisoner a quick and painless end, 
condemning him rather to a living 
death, with a mistaken idea of what 
constitutes clemency. Now, if at the 
expiration of ten or fifteen years, the 
lesson has not been impressed upon the 
mind of the convicted man and there 



the wisdom of this course. The United 
States Government has been slow to 
introduce into its laws the parole sys- 
tem, the indeterminate sentence, parole 
for life prisoners, and the granting of 
a small compensation to prisoners in 
return for their labor. The Govern- 
ment has, perhaps wisely, chosen rather 
to act slowly and profit by the experi- 
ences of the various States that have 
adopted modern methods along these 
lines, but the time has come when the 
Government, perceiving that many 
benefits are to be derived from the 
adoption of these laws, will not alone 
adopt them but will take the initia- 



HUMANITY IN FEDERAL PRISON. 



423 



tivo and introduce other and more 
liberal measures that will tend toward 
the complete reformation and rehabili- 
tation of the unfortunate individual 
who, through either his own fault or 
the fault of others, has transgressed 
the laws of his country and is com- 
pelled to serve a prison sentence, 
whether that sentence be one of a year 
and a day or the hopeless one of life 
imprisonment. 

^Vlien one has read that, one cannot 
but hope that the gifts which are now 
used to make a success of the little 
prison paper, may soon be exercising 
their God given power in the big world 
"outside." 

Many of the men now in the Fede- 
ral Prison at Atlanta have, perhaps, a 
better showing to take up life's duties 
when they go out again into the world, 
than they had when they w^ere made 
"wards of the State." 

In the light of a day's news, those 
who think, must realize that, "there is 
so much bad in the best of us, and so 
much good in the worst of us," it is 
truly up to us all to strike the happy 
medium in dealing with all. 

There is no room for mawkish senti- 
ment in discussing the problem of how 
to make good men of those who have, 
b}^ an infraction of Law, been com- 
pelled to submit to separation from 
those whom they have sinned against; 
there are some — white slavers, wife 
murderers and wife beaters, to whom 
clemency in any form would be a hard 
matter for many to consider. But-, 
there are others, whose crime com- 
mitted in the heat of passion, surely 
should entitle them to clemency and 
another opportunity to make good, 
when the}^ have paid, by years of 
imprisonment, a bitter price for their 
folly. 




The Superstitious Fear of Lightning in 

Colonial Days 



WITIIIJs^ the past few years 
tlu'ie have been munerous 
fatalities from lightning. 
JNIany reasons are given by scientists, 
some claiming that, as Nature had 
used the trees as conductors, the 
slaughtering of forests Avas accountable 
for the freaks which burns barns and 
homes, kills or maims humans and 
beasts, and plays havoc generally with 
mortal man. 

Here and there we still find a few 
vvlio firmly believe that death from 
lightning is "a judgment from God." 

If the victim Avas a pious, upright 
character, then the Almigtity wanted 
him. If he was dissolute, no-account, 
not a church member, then the rule 
worked the other way and he was a 
victim of the Almighty's wrath. 

Piety and superstition seemed to be 
close mates in the old Puritan days, 
and it is interesting to note how the 
famous New England preacher, 
Increase Mather, regarded lightning. 

In an old book called "Remarkable 
Providences, Illu^trative of the Earlier 
Days of American Colonization," he 
has gathered a series of happenings — 
which embrace ''Remarkable Sea 
Deliverances," "Concerning Appari- 
tions," "Demons and Possessed Per- 
sons," "Remarkable Tempests in New 
England" and the chiipter which we 
reproduce in thunder and lightning. 

This book was compiled, the author's 
preface assures us, in 1C85. '\^nien one 
recalls that New England was then in 
the throes of witchcraft; that Increase 
Mather and his no less famous brother, 
Cotton jMather, were largely instru- 
mental, preachers though they were in 
keeping alive the fires of superstition 
and "religious" persecution, the chap- 
ter is of even greater interest. 

There are who affirm, that although 



lerril)le lightnings with thunders have 
ever been frequent in this land, yet 
none were hurt thereby (neither man 
nor beast) for many A-ears after the 
English did first settle in these Ameri- 
can desarts, but that of later years 
fatal and fearful slaughters have in 
that way been made amongst us, is most 
certain; and there are many who have 
in this respect been as brands plucked 
out of the burning, when the Lord 
hath overthrown others as God over- 
threw Sodom and Gomorrah. Such 
solemn works of Providence ought not 
to be forgotten. I shall now, therefore, 
proceed in giving an account ol 
remarkables respecting thunder and 
lightning, so far as I have received 
credible information concerning them ; 
the particulars whereof are these which 
follow : — 

In July, 1G54, a man whose name 
was Partridge, esteemed a very godly 
l^err-on. at Salisbury in New England. 
w'dH killed with thunder and lightning. 
his house being set on fire thereby, and 
himself Avith others endearoring the 
quenching of it. by a second crack of 
thunder Avith lightning (he being at 
the door of his house), Avas struck 
dead, and ncAcr s^Dake more. Tliere 
Avere ten other persons also that Avere 
struck and lay for dead at the present, 
I)ut they all reviA'ed, excepting Part- 
ridge. Some that A'icAved him report 
that there were holes (like such as 
Avere made with shot) found in his 
clothes and skin. One side of his shirt 
and body was scorched, and not the 
other. His house, though (as was 
said) set on fire by the lightning in 
diA'ers places, Avas not burnt doAvn, but 
. ]n'eserA'ed b}^ an abundance of rain 
falling upon it. 

July 31, 1658, there happened a 
storm of thunder and lightning Avith 
rain, in the town of Marshalfield, in 



SUPERSTITIOUS FEAR OF LIGHTNING. 



425 



Plymouth colony in New England. 
jMr. Nathanael Thomas, John Phillips, 
and another belonoino- to that town, 
being in the field, as the}^ perceived the 
storm a -coming, betook themselves to 
the next house for shelter. John 
Philips sat down near the chimney, his 
face towards the inner door. A black 
cloud fl3nng very low, out of it there 
came a great ball of fire, with a ter- 
I'ible crack of thunder: the lire-ball fell 
down just before the said Philips; he 
seemed to give a start on his seat, and 
so fell backward, being struck dead, 
not the least motion of life appearing 
in him afterwards. Captain Thomas, 
Avho sat directly opposite to John 
Philips, about six feet distance from 
him, and a young child that was then 
within three feet of him. through the 
providence of God, received no hurt; 
,yet many of the bricks in the chimney 
were beaten down, the principal rafters 
split, the battens next the chimney in 
the chamber were broken, one of the 
main posts of the house into v.hich the 
sinnmer was framed rent into shivers, 
and a great part of it was carried sev- 
eral rod from the house; the door 
before Philips, where the fire came 
doAvn was broken. 

On the 28th of April, A. D., 16G5, a 
company of the neighbors being met 
together at the house of Henry Cond- 
liif, in North-Hampton in New Eng- 
land, to spend a few hours in Christian 
conferences and in prayer, there hap- 
pened a storm of thunder and rain; 
and as the good man of the house was 
at prayer, there came a ball of light- 
ning in at the roof of the house, which 
set the thatch on fire, no breach being 
made on the boards, only one ot the 
joyaces somewhat razed. Matthew 
Cole, who was son-in-law to the said 
Condliff, was struck stone dead as he 
was leaning over a table, and joining 
with the rest in prayer. He did not 
stir nor groan after he was smitten, 
but continued standing as before, bear- 
ing upon the table. There was no 



visible impression on his body or 
clothes, only the sole of one ot his shoes 
was rent from the upper leather. 
There were about twelve persons in the 
room ; none else received any harm, 
only one woman (who is still living) 
was struck upon the head, Avhich occa- 
sioned some deafness ever since. The 
fire on the house was quenched by the 
seasonable help of neighbors. 

July li>, 1GG5, there were terrible 
cracks of thunder: a house in Boston 
was struck by it, and the dishes therein 
melted as they stood on the shelves; 
but no other hurt done in the toAvn, 
only Captain Davenport, a worthy 
man, and one that had in the Pequot 
war ventured his life, and did great 
service for the countr}^, then residing 
in the castle, where he commanded, 
having that day wrought himself 
weary, and thinking to refresh himself 
with sleep, was killed with lightning as 
he lay upon his bed asleep. Several of 
the soldiers in the castle were struck at 
the same time', but God spared their 
lives. It has been an old opinion, men- 
tioned by Plutarch [Sympos. lib. 4, q. 
2), that men asleep are never smitten 
with lightning; to confirm which it has 
been alleged, that one lying asleep, the 
lightning melted the money in his 
purse, without doing him any further 
harm; and that a cradle, Avherein a 
child lay sleeping, was broken with 
lightning, and the child not hurt; and 
that the arrows of King Mithridates, 
being near his bed, were burnt with 
lightning, and yet himself being 
asleep received no hurt. But as much 
of all this may be affirmed of persons 
awake; and this sad example {triste 
jaccs lucis evitandamquc Jjidental) of 
Captain Davenport, whom the light- 
ning found and left asleep, does con- 
fute the vulgar error mentioned. And 
no doubt but that many the like 
instances to this have been known in 
the world, the records whereof we have 
not. But I proceed. 

June ■ 23, 1666, In Marshfield, 



426 



WATSON'S MAGAZINE. 



another dismal storm of rain with 
thunder and lightning happened. 
There were then in the honse of John 
riiilips (he was father of that Jolin 
IMiilips who was slain by lightning in 
the year 1G58) fourteen persons; the 
woman of the house calling earnestly 
to shut tlie door, that was no sooner 
done, but an astonisliing thunder-clap 
fell upon the house, rent the chimney, 
and split the door. All in the house 
were struck. One of them (who is still 
living) saith, that Avhen he came to 
himself, he saw the house full of 
smoke, and perceived a grievous smelt 
of l)rimstone, and saAv the fire lie scat- 
tered, though whether that fire came 
from Heaven or was violently hurled 
out of the hearth, he can give no 
account. At first he thought all the 
people present, except himself, had 
been killed; but it pleased God to 
revive most of them. Only three of 
them were mortally wounded Avith 
Heaven's arroAvs, viz., the wife of John 
Philips, and another of his sons, a 
young man about twenty years old, and 
AVilliam Sherth', who had a child in 
his arms, that received no hurt by the 
lightning when himself was. slain. 
Tliis Shertly was at that time a 
sojourner in John Philips' house. The 
wife of this Shertly was with child 
and near her full time, and struck 
down for dead at present, but God 
recovered her, so that she received no 
hurt, neither b}' fright nor stroke. 
Two little children sitting upon the 
edge of a table, had their lives pre- 
served, though a dog, which lay behind 
them under the table, was killed. 

In the same year, in the latter end of 
May, Samuel Kuggles, of Rocksbor- 
ough in New England, going with a 
loaded cart, was struck with lightning. 
He did not hear the thunder-clap, but 
was by the force of the lightning, ere 
he was aware, carried over his cattle 
about ten feet distance from them. 
Attempting to rise up, he found that 
he was not able to stand upon his right 



log, for his right foot was become lim- 
ber, and Avould bend any wa5% feeling 
as if it had no bone in it; nevertheless, 
he made a shift with the use of one leg 
lo get to his cattle (being a horse and 
two oxen), which were all killed by the 
lightning. He endeavored to take off 
the yoke from the neck of one of the 
oxen, but then he perceived that his 
thumb and two fingers on one hand 
were stupefied that he could not stir 
them ; they looked like cold clay, the 
blood clear gone out of that part of his 
hand; but by rubbing his wounded leg 
and hand, blood and life came into 
tliem again. As he came Tiome. pulling 
off his stocking, he found that on the 
inside of his right leg (which smarted 
much) the hair was quite burnt off, 
and it looked red; just over his ankle 
his stocking was singed on the inside, 
but not on the outside, and there were 
near upon twenty marks, about as big 
as pins' heads, which the lightning 
h.ad left thereon ; likewise the shoe on 
his left foot was by the lightning 
struck off his foot, and carried above 
two rods from him. On the uj^per 
leather, at the heel of the shoe, there 
Avere five holes burnt through it, bigger 
than those which are made Avith duck 
shot. As for the beasts that were slain, 
the hair uj^jou their skins was singed, 
so that one might perceive that the 
lightning had run Avinding and turn- 
ing strangely ujion their bodies, leav- 
ing little marks no bigger than corns 
of gun-poAvder behind it. There Avas 
in the cart a chest, Avhich the lightning 
l)ierced through, as also through a 
quire of paper and twelve napkins, 
melting some poAvtcr dishes that were 
under them. 

At another time in Rocksborough, a 
thunder storm happening, broke into 
the house of Thomas Bishop, striking 
off some clapboards, splitting two 
studs of the end spar, and running 
down by each side of the Avindow, 
where stood a bed with three children 
in it. OA'er the head of the bed were 



SUPERSTITIOUS FEAR OP LIGHTNING. 



427 



three guns and a sAvorcl, which were so 
meUcd with the lig-htnin<i- that they 
began to run. It made a hole through 
the floor, and coming into a lower 
room, it beat down the shutter of the 
window, and running on a shelf of 
pewter, it melted several dishes there; 
and descending lower, it melted a brass 
mortar, and a brass kettle. The chil- 
dren in the bed wore wonderfully pre- 
served; for a lath at the corner of it 
was burnt, and splinters flew about 
their clothes and faces, and there was 
not a hand's breadth between them and 
the fire, yet received they no hurt. 

On the 18th of May (being the 
Lord's day) A. D. 1673, the people at 
Wenham (their worthy pastor, Mr. 
Antipas Newman, being lately dead) 
prevailed with the Reverend Mr. Hig- 
ginson, of Salem, to spend that Sab- 
bath amongst them. The afternoon 
sermon being ended, he, with several 
of the town, went to Mr. Newman his 
house. Whilst they were in discourse 
there about the word and works of 
God, a thunder-storm arose. After a 
while, a smart clap of thunder broke 
upon the house, and especially' into the 
room where they were sitting and dis- 
coursing together; it did for the pres- 
ent deafen them all, filling the room 
w4th smoke, and a strong smell as of 
brimstone. With the thunder-clap 
came in a ball of fire as big as the 
bullet of a great gun, which suddenly 
went up the chimney, as also the smoke 
did. This ball of fire was seen at the 
feet of Richard Goldsmith, who sat on 
a leather chair next the chimne}'', at 
which instant he fell qff the chair on 
the ground. As soon as the smoke was 
gone, some in the room endeavored to 
hold him up, but found him dead ; also 
the dog that lay under the chair was 
found stone dead, but not the least 
hurt done to the chair. All that could 
be perceived b}^ the man was that the 
hair of his head, near one of his ears, 
was a little singed. There were seven 
or eight in that room, and more in the 



next; 3et (through the merciful provi- 
dence of (Jod) none else had tlie least 
harm. This Richard Goldsmith, who 
was thus slain, was a shoemaker by 
trade, l)eiiig reputed a good man for 
the main ; but had blemished his Chris- 
tian profession by frequent breaking of 
his promise ; it being too common with 
him (as with too many professors 
amongst us), to be free and forward in 
engaging, but backward in perform- 
ing; yet this must further be added, 
that half a year before his death, God 
gave him a deep sense of his evils, that 
he made it his business, not only that 
his peace might be made with God, but 
with men also, unto whom he had 
given just offence. He went up and 
down bewailing his great sin in prom- 
ise-breaking; and was become a very 
conscientious and lively Christian, pro- 
moting holy and edifying discourses, 
as he had occasion. At that very time 
when he was struck dead, he was 
speaking of some passages in the ser- 
mon he had newly heard, and his last 
words were, Blessed he the Lord. 

In the same year, on the 21st of 
June, being Saturday, in the after- 
noon, another thunder-storm arose, 
during which storm Josiah Walton, 
the youngest son of ]SIr. William Wal- 
ton, late minister of Marble-head, was 
in a ketch coming in from sea, and 
being before the harbor's mouth, the 
wind suddenly shifted to the north- 
ward ; a violent gust of wind coming 
down on the vessel, the seamen con- 
cluded to hand their sails ; Josiah Wal- 
ton got upon the main yard to expedite 
the matter, and foot ciown the sail, 
when there happened a terrible flash 
of lightning, which breaking forth 
out of the cloud, struck doAvn three 
men who were on the deck, without 
doing them any hurt. But Josiah 
Walton being (as was salcl) on the 
main-yard, the lightning shattered his 
thigh-bone all in pieces, and did split 
and shiver the main-mast of the vessel, 
and scorcht the rigging. Josiah Wal- 



428 



WATSON'S MAGAZINE. 



ton falling down upon the deck, his 
leg was broken short off. His brother 
being on the deck, did (with others) 
take him up, and found him alive, but 
sorely scorched and wounded. They 
brought him on shore to his mother's 
house. At first he was very sensible 
of his case, and took leave of his 
friends, giving himself to serious prep- 
aration for another world. His rela- 
tions used all means possible for his 
recovery, though he himself told them 
he was a dead man, and the use of 
means would but put him to more 
misery. His bones were so shattered, 
that it was not possible for the art of 
man to reduce them; also, the violent 
heat of the weather occasioned a gan- 
grene. In this misery he continued 
until the next Wednesdaj'^ morning, 
and then departed this life. He was 
a hopeful young man. 

In the year 1678, on the 29th of 
June, at Cambridge in New England, 
a thunder-clap w^ith lightning broke 
into the next house to the college. It 
tore away and shattered into pieces a 
considerable quantit}^ of the tile on the 
roof. In one room there then hap- 
pened to be the wife of John Benja- 
min, daughter to Thomas Swetman, 
the owner of the house, who then had 
an infant about two months old in her 
arms ; also another woman. They were 
all of them struck; the child being by 
the force of the lightning carried out 
of the mother's arms, and thrown upon 
the floor some distance from her. The 
mother was at first thought to be dead, 
but God restored her, though she lost 
the use of her limbs for some consid- 
erable time. Her feet were singed with 
the lightning, and yet no sign thereof 
api)earing on her shoes. Also the child 
and the other woman recovered. In 
the next room were seven or eight per- 
sons who received no hurt. It was 
above a quarter of an hour before the 
room was so full of smoke (smelling 
like brimstone) that they could not 
see them. Some swine beingf near the 



door as the lightning fell, were thrown 
into the house, and seemed dead 
awhile, but afterwards came to life 
again. A cat was killed therewith. A 
pewter candlestick standing upon a 
joynt-stool, some part of it was melted 
and carried away before the lightning, 
and stuck in the chamber-floor over 
head, like swan shot, and yet the 
candlestick itself was not so much as 
shaken off from the stool whereon it 
stood. 

June r2, 1080. There was an amaz- 
ing thunder-storm at Hampton in New- 
England. The lightning fell upon the 
house of Mr. Joseph Smith, strangely 
shattering it in divers places. His 
wife (the grand-daughter of that emi- 
nent man of God, Mr. Cotton, who was 
the famous teacher of the church of 
Christ, first in Old and then in New 
Boston) lay as dead for the present, 
being struck down with the lightning 
near the chimney; yet God mercifully 
spared and restored her; but the said 
Smith his mother (a gracious woman) 
was struck dead, and never recovered 
again. 

Besides all these Avhich have been 
mentioned, one or two in Connecticut 
colony, and four persons dwelling in 
the 'northern parts of this countrv, 
were smitten with the fire of God, 
about sixteen years ago; the circum- 
stances of which providences (though 
veiy remarkable) I have not as yet 
received from those that were 
acquainted therewith and therefore 
cannot here publish them. Also, some 
remarkables about thunder happened 
the last j-ear. 

A reverend friend in a neighbor 
colony, in a letter bearing August 3, 
lG8-_>,\vriteth thus:— 

'•AYe have had of late gi'eat storms 
of rain and wind, and some of thunder 
and lightning, whereby execution has 
been done, though with sparing mercy 
to men. Mr. Jones his house in New- 
Haven was broken into by the light- 
ning, and strange work made in one 



SUPERSTITIOUS FEAR OP LIGHTNING. 



429 



room especially, in Avliich one of his 
children had been but a little before. 
This Avas done June 8th, 1()82. A little 
after which, at Norwalk, there were 
nine workinii" oxen smitten dead at 
once, within a small compass of 
orotuul. The next month, at Green- 
wich, there were seven swme and a dog 
killed with the lightning, very near a 
dwelling house, where a family of 
children (their parents not at home 
when lightning happened) were much 
frighted, but received no other hurt. 
What are these but warning pieces, 
showing that men's lives may go 
next?"' Thus he. 

I proceed now to give an account of 
some late remarkables about thunder 
and lightning, Avherein several vessels 
at sea were concerned. 

July 17, IGTT. A vessel, whereof 
Mv. Thomas Berry vras master, set sail 
from Boston in New England, bound 
for the island of Madeira. About 3 h. 
P. jM., being half way between Cape 
Cod and Brewsters Islands, they were 
becalmed; and they perceived a thun- 
der-shower arising in the north-north- 
west. The master ordered all their 
sails (except their two courses) to be 
furled. When the shower drew near to 
them, they had onW the foresail 
abroad; all the men were busy in lash- 
ing fast the long-boat; the master was 
walking upon the deck, and as he came 
near the main-mast, he beheld some- 
thing \evy black fly before him, about 
the bigness of a small mast, at the 
larboard side; and irmnediately be 
heard a dreadful and amazing noise, 
not like a single canon, but as if great 
armies of men had been firing one 
against another; })resently upon which 
the master was struck clear round, and 
fell down for dead upon the deck, con- 
tinuing so for about seven mniutes, but 
then he revived, having his hands 
much burnt with the lightning. The 
ship seemed to be on fire; and a very 
great smoke, having a sulphurous 
smell, came from between the decks, so 



that no man was able to stay there for 
more than half an hour after this sur- 
prising accident happened. The main- 
mast Avas split from the top-gallant- 
mast head to the lower deck. The 
partners of the pump were struck up at 
the star-board side ; and one end of two 
cabins staved down betwixt decks. 
Two holes were made in one of the 
pumps, about the bigness of two mus- 
ket bullets. They were forced to 
return to Boston again, in order to the 
fitting of the vessel with a new mast. 
Through the mercy of the Most High, 
no person in the vessel received any 
hurt, besides what hath been expressed. 
Yet it is remarkable, that the same 
day, about the same time, two men in 
or near Wenham were killed with 
lightning, as they sat mider a tree in 
the woods. 

On June Gth, A. D. 1G82, a ship 
called the Jamaica Merchant, Captain 
Joseph Wild, commander, being then 
in the Gulf of Florida, lat. 27 gr., 
about 1 h. P. M., was surprised with 
an amazing thunder-shower. The 
lightning split the main-mast, and 
knocked down one of the seamen, and 
set the ship on fire between decks in 
several places. The}^ used utmost 
endeavor to extinguish the fire, but 
cordd not do it. Seeing they were 
unable to overcome those flames, they 
betook themselves to their boat. The 
fire was so furious between the cabin 
and the deck in the steerage, that they 
could not go to the relief of each other, 
insomuch that a man and his wife were 
parted. The man leaped overboard 
into the sea, and so swam to the boat; 
his wife and a child were taken out of 
a gallery window^ into the boat. Three 
men more were saved by leaping out of 
the cabin window. There M'ere aboard 
this vessel which Heaven thus set on 
fire, thirty-four persons; yet all 
escaped with their lives : for the gra- 
cious providence of God so ordered, as 
that Captain John Bennet was then in 
company, who received these distressed 



430 



WATSON'S MAGAZINE. 



and astonished creatures into his ship : 
so did they behold the vessel burning, 
until about 8 h. P. M., when that 
which remained sunk to the bottom of 
the sea. The master with several of 
the seamen were, b}' Captain Bennet, 
brought safe to New England, where 
they declared how wondorfulh' they 
had I)een delivered from death, which 
(lod both by fire and water had threat- 
ened them with. 

March 10, 1682-3. A ship, whereof 
Robert Luist is master, being then at 
sea (bound for New England), in lat. 
27 9r., about 2 h. A. M., it began to 
thunder and lightning. They beheld 
three corpusants (as mariners call 
them) on the yards. The thunder grew 
fiercer and thicker than before. Sud- 
denly their vessel was filled with 
smoke and the smell of brimstone, that 
the poor men were terrified with the 
apprehension of their ship's being on 
fire. There came down from the clouds 
a stream or flame of fire, as big as the 
ship's mast, which fell on the middle of 
the deck, Avhere the mate Avas standing, 
but then was thrown flat upon his 
back, with three men more that were 
but a little distance from him. They 
that were yet untouched, thought not 
onl}^ that their fellow mariners had 
been struck dead, but their deck broken 
in pieces by that blow, whose sound 
seemed to them to exceed the report ol 
many great guns fired off at once. 
Some that were less dangerously hurt, 
made an out-cr\' that their legs were 
scalded, but the mate lay speechless 
and senseless. 'NAlien he began to come 
to himself, he made sad complaints of 
a burden l3'ing upon his back. When 
day came, they perceived their main- 
top-mast was split, and the top-sail 
burnt. The lightning seemed like small 
coals of fire blown overboard. 

There is one remarkable more about 
thunder and lightning, which I am 
lately informed of by persons con- 
cerned therein : some circumstances in 
the relation being as wonderful as anv 



of the i)nH'cdiiig particulars. Thus it 
was: — On July 24, in the year 1G81, 
the ship called Albemarl (whereof Mr. 
Edward Ladd was then master), 
being an hundred leagues from Cape 
(\)d. in lat. 38, about 3 h. P. M., met 
with a thunder-storm. The lightning 
■burnt the main-top-sail, split the main- 
cap in pieces, rent the nuist all along. 
There was in .sj^ecial one dreadful clap 
of thunder, the report bigger than of a 
great gun, at which all the ship's com- 
jiany were anuized; then did there fall 
something from the clouds upon the 
stern of the boat, which broke into 
many small parts, split one of the 
pumps, the other pump much hurt also. 
It was a bituminous matter, smelling 
much like fired gimpowder. It con- 
tinued burning in the stern of the 
boat ;they did with sticks dissipate it, 
and poured much Avater on it, and yet 
they were not able by all that they 
could do to extinguish it, until such 
time as all the matter was consumed. 
But the strangest thing of all is yet to 
be mentioned. AVhen night came, 
observing the stars, they perceived that 
their compasses were changed. As for 
the compass in the biddikil, the north 
point was turned clear south. There 
were two other compasses unhung in 
the locker in the cabin: in one of which 
the north jioint stood south, like that 
in the biddikil; as for the other, the 
north ])oint stood west, so that they 
sailed by a needle whose polarity was 
quite changed. The seamen were at 
first puzzled how to work their vessel 
right, consulering that the south point 
of their compass was now become 
north; but, after a little use, it was 
easy to them. Thus did thev sail a 
thousand leagues. As for the compass, 
wherein the lightning had made the 
needle to point westAvard, since it was 
brought to New^ England, the glass 
being broke, it has, by means of the 
air coming to it, Avholh^ lost its virtue. 
One of those compasses, which had 
quite changed the polarity from north 



SUPERSTITIOUS FEAR OF LIGHTNING. 



431 



to south, is still extant in Boston, and 
at present in my custody. The north 
point of the needle doth remain fixed 
to this day as it did immediately after 
the lifrhtnino; caused an alteration; the 
natural reason of which may be 
inquired into in the next chapter. But 
before I pass to that, it may be, it will 
be g-rateful to the reader for me 
here to commemorate some parallel 
instances, which have lately happened 
in other parts of the world, unto 
which I proceed, contenting myself 
with one or two examples, reserving 
others for the subsequent chapter, 
where we shall have further occasion 
to take notice of them. 

The authors of Ephemeridum Med- 
ico-Phijsicarum Gcrmanicarum have 
informed the world, that on August 
14, 1CG9, it thundered and lightened as 
if Heaven and earth would come 
together. And at the house of a gen- 
tleman, who lived near Bergen, the 
tier}' lightning flashed through four 
inner rooms at once; entering into a 
beer cellar, with its force it threw 
down the earthen essels, with the win- 
dows and doors where it came; but the 
tin and iron vessels were partly melted, 
and partly burnt, with black spots 
remaining on them. Where it entered 
the cellar, the barrels were removed 
out of their right places; where it went 
out, it left the taps shaking. In one 
room, the binding was taken off from 
the back of a Bible, and the margin 
was accurately cut by the lightning 
without hurting the letters, as if it had 
I)een done by the hands of some artist, 
beginning at the Revelation, and 
(which is wonderful) ending with the 
twelfth chapter of 1 Epistle to the 
Corinthians, which chapter fell in 
course to be expounded in public the 
next Lord's day. Six women sitting 
in the same chimney, filled with a sul- 
phurous and choaking mist, that one 
could scarce breathe, not far from the 
bed of a woman that was then l3'^ing'-in, 
were struck down, the hangings of the 



room burnt, and the mother of the 
woman in child-bed lay for dead at 
present; but, after a while, the other 
recovering their senses, examined what 
hurt was done to the woman thought 
to be dead: her kerchief was burnt, as 
if it had been done with gunpowder; 
she had about her a silver chain, which 
was melted and broke into five parts; 
her under-garments were not so much 
as singed; but just under her paps she 
was very much burnt. After she came 
to herself she was very sensible of 
pain in the place where the lightning 
had caused that Avound. To lenifie 
which, women's milk was made use of; 
but blisters arising, the dolour was 
increased, until a skillful physician 
prescribed this unguent : — R. MvcU, 
scm. cydoniorum c. aq. malv. half an 
ounce. Svcc. Plantag. rcc. an ounce 
and a half. Lytluirg. aur. suht. pert. 
half a drachm, m. ad. flct. Wliereby 
the inflammation was allayed. 

By the same authors, it is also 
related, that in June, A. D. 1G71, a 
house was struck with lightning in 
four places; in some places the timber 
was split, and in other places had 
holes made in it, as if bored through 
with an augar, but no impression of 
fire were anywhere to be seen. A girl, 
fifteen years old, sitting in the chim- 
ne}^, was struck down, and lay for dead 
the space of half an hour; and it is 
probable, that she had never recovered, 
had not an able physician been sent 
for, who vieAving her, perceiA^d that 
the clothes about her breast were made 
to look blueish by the lightning : it had 
also caused her paps to look fiery and 
blackish, as if they had been scorched 
with gunpoAvder. Under her breast 
the lightning had left creases across 
her body, of a brownish color: also, 
some creases made by the lightning, as 
broad as one's finger, run along her 
left leg reaching to her foot. The 
l^hysician caused two spoonsful of 
apoplectick water to be poured down 
her throat, upon which she instantly 



432 



WATSON'S MAGAZINE. 



reived, complaining of a great heat in 
her jaws, and much pain in the places 
hurt by the lightning. Half a drachm 
of Pulvis Bezoarticus Anr/licus, in the 
water of sweet chervil was given to 
her, which caused a plentiful sweat, 
whereby the pain in her jaws was 
diminished. Being still feverish, an 
emulsion, made with poppy seed, mil- 
let, carduus benedictus, etc., was made 
use of, upon which the patient had 
ease and recovered. It appears by this, 
as well as other instances, that great 
care should be had of those that are 
thunder-struck, that they be not given 
up for quite dead, before all 
means be used in order to their 
being revived. Paul us Zacchias, 
in Questionibus Medicis, giveth 
rules whereby it may be known 
whether persons smitten Avith lightning 
be dead past all recovery or no. And 
the history put forth by Jacobus Jav- 
elins, in an epistle emitted with his 
Medkinoe G oiivpcndimn^ describes the 
cure of persons struck with lightning. 
I have not myself seen those books, but 
whoso shall see cause to obtain and 
consult them, will, I suppose, find 
therein things worth their reading and 
consideration. Something to this pur- 
pose I find in the Scholion^ on the 
G(rm. Ephcni. for the year 1671, obs. 
'^7, p. GO. The reader that is desirous 
to see more remarkable instances about 
thunder and lightning, wherein per- 
sons living in former age were con- 
cerned, if he please to look into 
Zuinger his llieatrum vit. Hiiinan^ vol. 
ii, lib. 2, p. 322, and lib. 7, p. 475, 545, 
and vol. iii. lib. 1, p. G21, and vol. v, 
lib. 4, p. 1371, he will find manj'^ 
notable and memorable passages Avhich 
that industrious author hath collected. 
Though none more awful (to my 



reiuembrauce) than that which hap- 
l)eiie(l A. D. 154(5, when jNIeckelen (a 
l)riiK'ipaI city in Brabant) was set on 
fire, and sufl'ered a fearful conflagra- 
tion by lightning; so it was, that at the 
very time when tliis thunder-storm 
happened, an inn-keeper (whose name 
was Croes) had in his house, some 
guests, who were playing at cards. 
The inn-keeper going into his wine- 
cellar to fetcli drink for his merry 
guests, at that moment the furious 
tempest plucked up the house and car- 
ried it a good way off. Every one of 
the men that were plaj'ing at cards 
were found dead with their cards in 
their hands, only the inn-keei)er him- 
self, being in the wine-cellar (which 
was arched) escaped with his life. 

This brings to mind a strange pas- 
sage related b}^ Cardan {De Variety 
lib. 8, c. 43), who saith, that eight 
men, sitting down together under an 
oak, as they were at supper, a flash of 
lightning smote and slew them all; and 
they were found in the very posture 
that the lightning surprised them in: 
one with the meat in his mouth, 
ar.other seemed to be drinking, another 
with a cup in his hand, which he 
intended to bring to his mouth, etc. 
Tliey looked like images made black 
with the lightning. 

As for Scripture examples of men 
shiin by lightning, it is the judgment 
of the judicious and learned Zuinger, 
that tlie Sodomites, and those 250 that 
being Avith Corab in his conspiracy, 
jn-esumed to offer incense (Xumb. xvi, 
35), and Nadab and Abihu, and the 
two semicenturions, with their soldiers, 
Avho came to apprehend the prophet 
Elijah, Avere all killed by lightning 
from Heaven. 



A Tragedy in Waxwork 



(From Bentley's Miscellany) 



THERE was an intense excitement 
in the imperial city of Vienna. 
For weeks past heavy trains of 
Hungarian prisoners, some of high 
birth, some of low, had been brought 
through the streets, and kept under 
arrest in various houses. The con- 
si:)iracy, known in history by the name 
of Zriny Nadasdy, which had been long 
smouldering, had been betrayed, and 
w^as finallj'^ drowned in the blood of the 
noble men who had staked life for a 
cause which was lost at the outset. As 
the prisons would not hold the number 
of persons compromised, it was found 
necessary to quarter them in private 
houses, whose windows were hurriedly 
gTated, and when filled with guards 
they resembled little citadels. 

The most uncomfortable rumors were 
afloat. The emperor, Leopold L, was 
seriously ill, and it seemed as if Provi- 
dence would no longer use his hand in 
signing the multitude of death-war- 
rants. At the same time the formida- 
ble foe across the Ehine, Louis XIV., 
was stirring, for he was engaged more 
than ever with his plan of securing for 
the House of Bourbon the succession 
to the throne of the Spanish Haps- 
burgs. Never had the moment been 
more favorable for the success of 
Louis's intrigues. 

Leopold had no male descendants. 
Plis younger brother, Charles Joseph, 
had died in 1064. If the emperor were 
to die, a war of succession would be 
inevitable, and who could resist the 
mighty Louis, who, allied with Eng- 
land through the weakness of Charles 
II., with Sweden, and the chief pow- 
ers of the empire, saw no foe of import- 
ance opposed to him save the States- 
General? Were not his armies led by 
such generals as Turenne and Conda, 
and there was as yet no Eugene or 
Marlborough to oppose to them? 



The House of Austria was tottering 
— there were two hundred and fifty 
combatants at that time in Vienna. 
They were combatants ad majorem Die 
grantiam! The fathers of the com- 
pany of Jesus. They had the emperor 
entirely in their power, called him 
their "Leopoldus Magnus," received a 
thousand marks of favor from him, 
and, by their fanatical greed for con- 
versions, paved the way for the insur- 
rection in Hungary, which was sup- 
ported by Louis XIV. The Magyars 
must be the scapegoats for all the 
treachery and faithfulness that were 
going on in the dark at the court of 
Vienna. These fathers were supported 
by the priests of the company, who had 
been in the service of Louis XIV. since 
1668, as the company preferred the 
growing power of the French to that of 
the imperiled Hapsburgs. 

Leopold I. was compelled to pray — 
pray a A^ery great deal — and he liked 
to pray. At that period, which cer- 
tainly urged the oppressed ruler more 
than any other to ask the aid of Diety, 
his conscience-keepers, the Jesuits, 
made religion a political lever. The 
emperor heard mass thrice a day on 
his knees, and Pater Muller lent him 
his ear in the confessional. Religious 
conversation formed the staple of the 
day's amusement, and every article the 
emperor employed must previously be 
blessed by the priests. 

On March 22d, 1670, just about twi- 
light, a man, pushing a truck before 
him, appeared in front of the store- 
houses in the imperial castle of Vienna. 
The kitchen officers at once took charge 
of his load, which was intended for 
household purposes. It consisted of 
two rather large chests. The compan- 
ions of the porter were strange enough : 
they were two men dressed in the garb 
of Jesuits. The steward, who was 



434 



WATSON'S MAGAZINE. 



summoned, made a deep bow. One of 
th'j black gentry was the pater-procu- 
rator, the other a less exalted instru- 
ment of the order. The kitchen-serv- 
ants had just caught hold of the chests, 
which had been removed from the 
truck, when the pater restrained them 
in a gentle voice. 

'"My friends," he said, "are you 
aware that these chests must be treated 
tenderly? Carry them carefully into 
the ante-room, so that their contents 
may not be injured." 

"Your reverence will greatly obilge 
by telling me what the chests contain, 
so that I may take due care of them 
until I hand them over to the cham- 
berlin on duty," the steward said, gaz- 
ing reverently at the two chests. 

"Learn, my friend," the procurator 
replied, "that the cases contain a num- 
ber of consecrated wax candles, whose 
flames w^ill henceforth illumine the 
imperial apartments. His majesty, you 
know, receives every thing he requires 
from the hands of us, who have blessed 
it for his reverence. Inform the serv- 
ants who have charge of the apart- 
ments that his majesty gave his rever- 
end confessor. Father Muller, to under- 
stand that he wished, in addition to 
other consecrated objects, to have such 
candles burnt in his room. They must, 
therefore, be henceforth taken from 
this store." 

After the procurator had convinced 
himself that the cases had been prop- 
erly delivered, he went away with his 
companion. On the same evening con- 
secrated candles were lit in the apart- 
ment of the Emperor Leopold, and 
remained from that time in constant 
use. 

A week later the emperor was taken 
dangerously ill. In spite of the conse- 
crated candles, he began to pine awa}", 
and no physician, no prayers, could 
check it. 

"The Hungarian malcontents have 
poisoned the emperor," 'twas said in 
Vienna. "The Nadasdy has done it. 



for he tried his hand first in killing- 
Nicholas Zriny." 

A light traveling caleche was follow- 
ing the road from Swechat to Vienna. 
The driver wore a broad-brimmed hat, 
and had a brace of pistols in his belt. 
Imperial dragoons rode on either side 
of the carriage, with their carbines 
laid across their saddle bow. This 
escort indicated to passers-by that there 
was a prisoner of importance in the 
interior of the vehicle. 

The two-seated caleche was convey- 
ing two genelemen to Vienna, the 
younger of whom Avore the uniform of 
the Austrian Life Guards. His face 
revealed the Southerner at the first 
glance, and the cheerful expression 
which was visible on it formed a strik- 
ing contrast with the melancholy 
stamped on the features of the elder 
gentleman sitting by his side. The lat- 
ter, for whom the escort was intended, 
was dressed in black velvet. A long 
cloak, edged with expensive fur, 
entirely covered his person. On his 
head he wore a close-fitting cap, under 
whose brim gray locks peered out. His 
talented noble face had assumed that 
yellowish hue peculiar to ivory when 
it is hundreds of years old, and which 
is the color of thinkers of martyrs. 
His large back eyes sparkled above his 
aquiline nose, and a long beard fell on 
his chest. The officer was Captain 
Luigi Scotti of the Guards, his prisoner 
the learned, much abused adept, physi- 
cian, and philosopher, Giuseppe Fran- 
cisco Borri. 

This Borri was a remarkable man. 
Scion of a noble family, he had devoted 
himself with ardent zeal to the sciences. 
He left his home in Milan in order to 
visit the Eternal City. At this place, 
which was so dangerous for such occu- 
pation, he labored diligently in per- 
fecting himself in the secret arts of 
chemistry. Borri, like most of the 
learned hot-heads of his day, sought 
the philosopher's stone. When he stood 
till day-break in front of his labor- 



A TRAGEDY IN WAXWORK. 



435 



atory forge, when his retorts grew red- 
hot, when the strangest mixtures, 
reduced to a flux, heaved and bubbled 
tumultously in the wondrously-shaped 
vessels, joy shone on his pale features, 
and when, after lengthened toil, he had 
completed a chemical analysis, he 
Avould throw himself delighted on his 
bed, in order to continue working in 
his dreams. But the excited fancy of 
the alchemist wandered out of the nar- 
row walls of his laboratory : it became 
fixed on things and questions which 
could not be solved by mere experi- 
ments. His active mind also flew into 
the region of theology and the church, 
and said to him: "The Pope is not the 
high priest if he does not bear on his 
lu'ow the symbol of Deity." 

These doubts pursued him asleep 
and awake, and left him no rest, until 
his martyrdom was converted into 
apparitions and visions. At length he 
believed himself bound to impart these 
doubts to a priest, and to speak fear- 
lessly. He delivered orations against 
the supremacy of the Pope, in which 
he partly based his arguments on 
supernatural illusions, while he at the 
same time declared that the mysteries 
of our faith were derived from the 
principles of chemistry. 

The Jesuits, with whom he had 
studied when a youth, violently perse- 
cuted him, and obtained an order for 
his arrest through the tribunal of the 
Inquisition. Borri fled from Rome to 
]\Iilan, and thence to Strasburg. Dur- 
ing this time his picture was burnt at 
Rome, on January 3d, 1661, by the 
hangman, and his name exposed on the 
gallows. His scholars were impris- 
oned. Not being suffered to remain at 
Strasburg, Borri proceeded to Amster- 
dam. Here he was in safety. He had 
certainly found the philosopher's 
stone, for his extensive studies had 
made a great physician of him. Borri 
could scarcely satisfy the crowds that 
desired to be cured by him. Money 
poured in in large sums, and enabled 
him to keep up a brilliant establish- 



ment. His chemical experiments had 
opened for him one of the dark sides 
of nature: Borri had a perfect knowl- 
edge of i^oisons, their effect and their 
cure. After performing many cures, 
almost bordermg on the marvelous, 
especially of eye diseases, he went to 
Hamburg, where he made the acquaint- 
ance of Queen Christina. A few 
months after he was summoned to 
Copenhagen, where he astonished all 
the world by his talent. A mean court 
intrigue overthrew him. After the 
death of King Frederick III. he left 
the north of Europe in order to pro- 
ceed to Turkey. On April 10th, 1670, 
he arrived at Goldingen, on the Sile- 
sian border, and lodged at the house 
of a gentleman, wdth the resolution of 
continuing his journey to Turkey 
through Moravia and Poland. 

It was here that Borri fell into the 
hands of the imperialists. 

One day the papal nuncio was in the 
imperial cabinet, engaged in conversa- 
tion with Leopold. They were discuss- 
ing the insurrection wdiich had broken 
out in Hungary. Just at the moment 
when the priest was in the full swing 
of his harangue, and thundering 
against the rebels, a fresh important 
dispatch was delivered to the emperor. 
It containd reports about what had 
occurred, and a long list of the persons 
compromised. The secretary read the 
dispatch, and then the names, which 
did not affect the nuncio. At length 
he arrived at a name Avhich caused the 
]3riest to give an involuntary start. 
Francis Borri stood on the lists of the 
suspected: there was evidence that the 
physician was in immediate connec- 
tion with the malcontents. 

"Borri," the nuncio cried, gnashing 
his teeth, "Borri to be captured? Your 
majesty, have him arrested at once. 
He is one of the most dangerous emis- 
saries. He contrived to escape from 
the avenging arm of the Holy Office. 
His capture will be a double profit for 
the church and the throne." 

I^opold could never resist the 



436 



WATSON'S MAGAZINE. 



entreaties of a priest, least of all at 
such a moment as this, and hence Cap- 
tain Scotti was sent on a special mis- 
sion to Goldingen to arrest Borri. 

On April 22d, Borri's host came into 
the dining-room with an embarrassed 
air, and told the physicians of the arri- 
val of an imperial commissary, who 
had orders to arrest him. This man 
had evidently played the part of 
denouncer, even though he pretended 
that Borri's name and residence had 
been carried to Vienna by travelers. 
The captain, a countryman of Borri's 
and native of Florence, treated the 
prisoner with the greatest politeness, 
and told him that he was suspected of 
having an understanding with Stephen 
Tekely, one of the chiefs of the con- 
spiracy. Borri tQok leave of his false 
friend, got into the carriage waiting 
for him with the captain, the dragoons 
broke into a trot, and they at once 
started for Vienna. 

The conversation between the trav- 
elers was materially promoted by the 
fact that they were countrymen, and 
could converse in Italian. In the 
course of conversation Scotti 
remarked: 

"]\Iy dear friend, I fancy that you 
must have powerful enemies among 
the higher clergj^, probably on account 
of your acquirements; the papal nun- 
cio himself is among your opponents." 

"In that case I can recognize the real 
cause of my arrest." 

Scotti furthermore told the physician 
that the emperor was suffering from a 
wasting disease, which seemed to be 
insurable. 

"It is said," the captain continued, 
"that his majesty has been poisoned." 

"Have not his physicians noticed 
this?" Borri said; "and could they not 
at once expel the poison from his body ? 
Such a task would not cause me any 
embarrassment, as soon as I had con- 
vinced myself of the presence of the 
poison. The emperor would not be the 
first I have saved. Perhaps I am sum- 



moned to cure the man who pursues 
and imprisons me. My dear country- 
man, inform the emperor that, if he 
has really been poisoned, I will free 
liim from it, in order to prove that I 
am incipable of taking any revenge 
for the insult done me by my arrest." 

Scotti promised to inform the empe- 
ror of the promised help. 

At mid-day, on April 28th, the 
travelers arrived in Vienna. Borri's 
prison was in the Swan Inn. Two 
days previousl}'^, two principal leaders 
of the conspiracy, Peter Zriny and 
Frangipani, had been confined in this 
very house : now they were under close 
arrest at Neustadt. A few collected 
when Borri got out at the door of the 
inn. but generally his arrival attracted 
but slight attention, as the bringing in 
of Hunjrarian prisoners had now 
become an every-day scene for the 
inhabitants of Vienna. 

Borri Avas treated with great civility 
by the soldiers on guard, and shown 
to the best room. "When left alone and 
locked up, the wearied man threw him- 
self on to the simple couch, and sank 
into a deep sleep. He might have been 
sleeping some hours, when the rattling 
of the bolts aroused him. He sat up, 
and found himself in darkness. The 
door opened, and Borri saw his coun- 
tryman Scotti walk in, wrapped up in 
a cloak, and bearing a dark lantern. 

"Make haste and get ready," the cap- 
tain began. 

"Am I to be examined already?" 

"No. The emperor wishes to speak 
with you, for your reputation as a phy- 
sician is known to him. "N^Tiile mak- 
ing my report, I took advantage of the 
opportunity to mention your proposal 
to the illustrious patient. His majesty 
trusts in you, but was obliged to wait 
till night, as he does not wish the affair 
to become public, for you have been 
represented to him as one of the most 
obdurate heretics." 

"Had my conscience accused me of 
heresy," Borri said, with a smile, "the 



A TRAGEDY IN WAXWOEK. 



437 



emperor would not have caught me. 
My inner peace, and my desire to alle- 
viate the misery of my fellow-men, 
give me the strength to endure my 
arrest with tranquility. Let us go. I 
thank you, Scotti, for your recommen- 
dation, with which, however, you have 
certainly done the emperor a service." 

Arm in arm, the couple walked 
through the dark streets till they 
arrived in front of the palace. Here 
Scotti handed his prisoner over to a 
chamberlain, who led the physician 
through a long series of apartments to 
the imperial ante-chamber, where he 
requested him to sit down: the empe- 
ror would send for him. 

Borri was not alone; several persons 
were carrying on an animated conver- 
sation. The physician had thrown 
back the hood that covered his face, 
and openly displayed his intelligent 
and noble face. He noticed that he 
became the subject of an eager con- 
versation between two clergymen, who 
were unable to account for the reason 
of his appearance. 

At the expiration of a quarter of an 
hour a gentleman of the bed-chamber 
came in, politely requested the persons 
present to retire, and made Borri a sign 
to follow him. They again passed 
passed through several rooms, till they 
came to a velvet-covered door. The 
gentleman opened it, drew back the 
heavy portiere, and nodded to the phy- 
sician to come in. Borri found himself 
in the emperor's cabinet. 

The room, gloomy in itself, was 
lighted by twelve candles, burning in 
silver three branched candelabra. 
Several large pictures, chiefly repre- 
senting scenes from the lives of the 
saints, ornamented the walls. There 
were also all sorts of curiosities on 
consoles. By the side of a small work- 
table stood a veiy lofty prie-Dieu, over 
which a splendidly-carved crucifix 
hung. The window-curtains were close 
drawn. The half-light that prevailed 
in the room, in spite of the candles, did 



not allow the physician on first enter- 
ing to distinguish objects accurately. 
By degrees they stood out more dis- 
tinctly, and Borri noticed a little man 
seated in an arm-chair near the table, 
and making impatient movements. It 
was the Emperor Leopold. The 
patient wore a green silk dressing- 
gown, and a cap with a species of sun- 
shade. His feet were wrapped up, and 
his face was leaden-colored, and fright- 
fully fallen in. 

"There sits his majesty," the cham- 
berlain said to Borri, in Italian. 

The physician advanced a step, and 
bowed. 

"Are you the Milanese cavalier?" 
the emperor began, in a voice which 
seemed trembling from cold, although 
the stove threw out a cheerful heat. 

"At your majesty's service." 

"I am sorry to see you here as a 
prisoner, but you are not one at pres- 
ent." 

"Had I not been arrested, I should 
not have had the happiness of seeing 
your majesty." 

"I hea.r much that is satisfactory 
about your learning, although, in 
another respect, you are said to be a 
dangerous man." 

"I can fully believe both your 
majesty's statements, for in the world 
persecution ever follows praise." 

"Wily do you trouble yourself with 
religious affairs? Leave them to the 
clergy." 

"I regard religion as a great treas- 
ure. Why should I not occupy myself 
with it?" 

"You are a Catholic?" 

"Yes, your majesty." 

"Stay, though. I am told that you 
have changed your religion several 
times, and are the founder of a new 
one." 

"So my enemies say, who are at the 
same time your majesty's enemies." 

"Wliat do you mean?" 

"Only those who are ignorant of 
religion and philanthropy have 



438 



WATSON'S MAGAZINE. 



brought me hither. As the people who 
wish to lay fetters on free thought are 
al\va3's the foes of God, they can not 
be the friends of jout majesty, from 
Avhom I do not expect such a thing." 

Here the chamberlain made the 
remark: "Inspiration is rising to the 
cavalier's brain." 

"Who is this man," Borri asked, 
AA'ith a contemptuous shrug of the 
shoulders, "who has the boldness to 
speak about inspiration?" 

"He is my chamberlain," the empe- 
ror said, soothingly. "He has humor- 
ous notions at times." 

"He may swallow them in my pres- 
ence," the physician said, sternly. "It 
annoys me quite enough to see such 
people in your majesty's entourage." 

"Do not be so excitable, Tnj good 
cavalier," Leopold exclaimed. "If I 
were to be annoyed by all such remarks, 
I should have been in my grave long 
ago." 

"I am never silent, j^our majesty, 
when I have to express my views. 
Hence, before I have the happiness of 
conversing with your majesty again, I 
make the stipulatio'n that this man 
must hold his tongue." 

The emperor made a sign with his 
hand to the chamberlain, and the 
latter fell back. 

This conversation gives us a very 
distinct idea of Leopold's bigoted ten- 
dencies. Instead of consulting the 
physician about his own state, which 
was evidently dangerous, the emperor 
first began a religious skirmish with 
the philosopher or heretic. The con- 
versation next turned to Borri's 
expressed opinions about the Trinit3\ 
Leopold examined into the physician's 
theological knowledge, his views about 
the Virgin, and many other matters, 
in which Borri's logic always had the 
best of it. At last the emperor said: 

"You have something to answer for 
at Eome, and I trust you will be able 
to do so without any unpleasant conse- 
quences. But now I hear that you 



devote yourself to chemical cures. I 
would sooner talk to you on that point 
than about theological things. "What 
have you heard about my condition?'' 

"Nothing beyond the supposition 
that your majesty has been poisoned. 
But that I may be able to express my 
views on the subject, your majesty's 
physician-in-ordinary must bring the 
symptoms before me, and then I shall 
be able to speak with greater cer- 
tainty." 

B}^ the emperor's orders the physi- 
cian was sent for. When left alone 
with the emperor, Borri bent searching 
glances upon the emperor's wasted 
form, then felt the sufferer's skin and 
finally carefully surveyed the walls. 
After this, he examined every object 
with the greatest attention, and at 
length fixed his eyes resolutely on the 
ceiling, as if he wished to pierce 
through the flowers and ornaments 
that decorated it in rich stucco work. 
The emperor's eyes timidly followed 
Borri's glances and movements. The 
poor patient groaned deeply; he was 
awaiting the physician's opinion — a 
supposition or a consolation. 

"Well, Borri," he panted, "what do 
you think?" 

"My supposition," the physician 
firmly remarked, "has almost become a 
certainty. Your majesty has been 
poisoned." 

"Holy mother have mercy on me!" 
the emperor shrieked. 

"I must, as I said, speak with the 
physician-in-ordinary ; but I believe 
he wnll share my views. I can also 
promise jowr majesty's recovery with 
equal certaint3^ There is still time for 
it." 

"And how do you come to the con- 
clusion of poison? My most intimate 
friends nearly always dine with me out 
of the same dish. Do j'ou notice any 
thing on my body?" 

"Your majesty," said Borri, "it is 
not your body but the atmosphere of 
your sitting-room and bed-room that is 



A TRAGEDY IN WAXWORK. 



439 



poisoned. So soon as the physician-in- 
ordinary arrives, we will make 
arrangements to remove you to other 
apartments." 

"How can you know this when I feel 
nothing of it?" 

"Your majesty is too accustomed to 
the poisonous exhalation for you to 
notice it." 

"And where does this exhalation 
come from?" 

The physician walked slowly and 
solemnly to the gilt gueridons on which 
the triple-branched candlesticks stood. 
He took the latter down, went up to 
the emperor's table, and plated them 
by the side of the other candlesticks. 
Twelve burning candles were now 
close together. 

"IVliere the exhalation comes from?" 
Borri said, stretching out his hand; 
"from your wax candles, your majesty. 
Do you not see the red fire in the 
flame?" 

At this moment the chamberlain 
came in. 

"The fire is vivid," the emperor 
objected, "but does not seem to me 
extraordinary." 

"Do you not perceive the fine white 
mist, which is not found with natural 
candles?" 

"My eyes are so weak. Do you see 
it, chamberlain?" 

The gentleman thus appealed to was 
compelled to answer in the affirma- 
tive. 

"Your eyes," said Borri, contemptu- 
ously, "are better than your brain, M. 
Chamberlain." 

The emperor's physician-in-ordinary 
made his appearance. 

"You have come at the right mo- 
ment," the emperor exclaimed; "this 
cavalier asserts that the atmosphere of 
niy room is poisoned. Have you the 
diagnosis with you?" 

"Here, your majesty; it has been 
kept since the first day of your illness," 
said the physician. 

Borri ran through the papers, and 



found them perfectly correct and care- 
ful. The physician, pleased at this 
acknowledgement of his services, 
listened to Borri's suspicions. 

"Look here, doctor," Borri 
exclaimed; "do you see this fine, 
quickly-ascending vapor? Noav look 
at the ceiling; do you notice the cruSt 
which the vapor has deposited there?" 

"I see it all, and bow to your sharp- 
ness, cavalier," said the doctor. "I 
confess, your majesty, that I have felt 
suspicious for some days past." 

"Does your majesty burn such cand- 
les everywhere?" Borri asked. "It 
would be important to know whether 
they are used in the empress's room." 

The chamberlain was ordered to 
fetch two burning candles from the 
apartment of the empress, and the 
flames were compared. The emperor's 
lights burned with a dark red restless 
flame; a fine vapor, which inclosed the 
upper part of the candle like a vail, 
was rent by repeated sj^arks, which 
flashed from the wick, and crepitated 
like electrical discharges. The cand- 
les of the empress burned quietly, like 
an ordinary wax-candle. 

"Here is the poison," Borri 
exclaimed, triumphantly, as he laid his 
white bony hand on a candlestick 
belonging to the imperial cabinet. 
"Shall I prove to yoUr majesty that 
these candles contain a subtle poison?" 

"At once." 

Borri closed the door of the imperial 
cabinet. He and the physician imme- 
diately extinguished the suspected 
wax-candles. Then both went into a 
corner, took a silver dish, and began 
removing the wax from the wick over 
it. So soon as the latter was laid bare, 
Borri explained his views to the 
emperor. Leopold ordered the cham- 
berlain to be called, and commanded 
that the entire stock of wax candles 
should be brought into his room. They 
were taken out of a cupboard in the 
ante-room, and about thirty pounds 
still remained. Borri at once pointed 



440 



WATSON'S MAGAZINE. 



out a peculiar fact to the emperor. 
Each candle was marked at top and 
bottom with a gilt garland, evidently 
that there might be no mistake. A 
careful investigation was made, the 
result of which was that the wicks of 
the candles used by the emperor were 
powerfully impregnated with arsenic. 
A turn-spit dog was fetched, shut up 
in a closet, and a dish of meat was put 
before it, with which were mixed fine- 
ly-shredded pieces of the wick. 

In the mean while the emperor was 
removed to other apartments. By the 
monarch's orders, every body was to 
observe the deepest silence about the 
whole affair. Borri and the physician- 
in-ordinary proceeded to the palace 
surgery, sent away all the assistants, 
and prepared an antidote for the 
emperor with their own hands. Borri 
then analyzed the components of the 
dipped wick, and obtained from it a 
copious deposit of arsenic. He had 
left orders that he should be called so 
soon as the dog began to grow rest- 
less, but the effect of the poison was so 
rapid that Borri found the animal 
dead when he returned to the emperor. 
Both physicians began the cure of the 
emperor on the same evening. Borri's 
medicine consisted chiefly of sudorifics, 
which he always employed in poison- 
ing cases. 

Leopold had scarce changed his 
room ere he gave orders to have the 
supplier of the wax-candles arrested. 
The procurator of the Jesuits was 
found to be the man, but he was *io 
longer in Vienna. By express orders 
of the emperor, Borri remained near 
him, and attended the monarch, who 
daily grew better. The physician sup- 
ported the savant to the best of his 
ability, and by May 19th the emperor 
was able to drive out again. 

He constantly had conversations 
with Borri, who was obliged to make 
him an accurate report of his medical 
treatment. The physician had most 
strictly followed the effect of the 



poison and its amount, and even 
examined the deposit on the ceiling. 
He kept back two candles as evidence, 
and the rest were employed in analy- 
sis. The weight of the candles was 
twentj^-four pounds, that of the 
impregnated wicks three pounds and a 
half, whence Borri concluded that the 
amount of poison was nearly two 
pounds and three quarters. AVlien the 
emperor heard these results, he 
exclaimed: "They would have sent me 
ad patres in a few months." Borri 
dined at the imperial table, and was 
greatly distinguished, to the no slight 
annoyance of his clerical foes, who, 
however, were sufficiently well 
acquainted with the emperor's vacilla- 
tion to feel sure that their victim 
would not escape them. The same 
opinion prevailed among the inhabi- 
tants at court. Scotti only looked at 
his celebrated countrj^man with glances 
of compassion, and the physician-in- 
ordinary declared without hesitation: 

"My dear Borri, the behavior of the 
emperor has only increased the num- 
ber of your foes. Any one who has 
attracted the hatred of the priests here 
may be regarded as lost. You will see 
your destiny fulfilled in Rome." 

"No persecution," Borri repriel, 
"will keep down my mind." 

It can scarcely be believed that Leo- 
pold really surrendered the savior of 
his life to the power of the Holy Office 
in Rome, were there not, unhappily, 
too many similar instances in history. 

On June 14th, 1G70, the perfectly- 
cured Leopold discharged his physi- 
cian Borri. He thanked him fer- 
vently, and with tears in his eyes, and 
regretted that he could not display the 
gratitude which he owed the phj^sician 
from the feelings of his heart. In the 
matter of religion, however, Borri had 
so "gone astray that it was necessary 
to cure him of his errors." The Pope 
would appoint a commission. "Still," 
the emperor continued, "I have 
obtained a guarantee from the papal 



A TRAGEDY IN WAXWORK. 



441 



nuncio that in no case shall any thing 
be done against your body and your 
life. My envoy in Home will tell you 
this in the presence of the papal com- 
mission. So long as you live, two 
hundred ducats a year shall be paid 
you by myself or my heirs as a memo- 
rial of what 3'ou have done for me. If 
3'ou come to a better conviction in reli- 
gious matters, I will see what is to be 
done. God take you under his protec- 
tion — that is my wish. Farewell." 

He offered the physician his hand to 
kiss, which Borri bedewed with his 
tears — tears of emotion and of com- 
passion. On the following day the 
savant Avas taken to Rome under an 
escort. The procurator was never 
heard of again; the black deed, how- 
ever, was concealed, and the priests 
^nd their influence still prevailed as of 
yore. 

As for Borri, he was imprisoned for 
life in the castle of St. Angelo. At 
first he was never to leave the castle, 
but eventually obtained so much liberty 
that he was allowed to go in and out 
unimpeded, and practice. This he 
owed to the energetic interference of 
the French marechal, D'Estrees, whom 
he cured of a dangerous disease at 
Rome. After this he performed seve- 
ral other remarkable cures, and died in 
1681. The Jesuit general, Pater Gon- 
zalez, frequently visited him in St. 
Angelo in order to obtain from him 



the arcanum by which he expelled pois- 
ons from the human body. Gonzalez 
even went so far as to give him a certi- 
ficate of his entire innocence, and 
promised him his liberty. But Borri 
ever laughingly declined to reveal the 
secret, Avith the words: "This knowl- 
edge is not m accordance Avith the rules 
of St. Ignatius of Loyola." At Vienna 
the affair was soon forgotten: the exe- 
cution of the Hungarian rebels 
destroyed the horror which the dark 
deed at first aroused. 

It is certainly most probable that 
the attempt was made on Leopold at 
the instigation of the French party, 
from the motives we have already 
stated. The pater-procurator was at 
once got out of the way, and probably 
received compensation elsewhere; and, 
according to the principles of the 
order, it was not responsible for the 
wicked action of an individual. On 
September 20th, 1713, however, Prince 
Eugene wrote to Sinzendorf from 
Philippsburg : "I am satisfied with the 
selection of Beutenreider as political 
adjutant, and will take such care of the 
health of this excellent man that no 
apprehension about Aqua Tofana shall 
affect him. A veil must be thrown 
over many things, as the Emperor 
Leopold believed when he was con- 
vinced by the unfortunate Borri that 
the poison he had inhaled was derived 
from the wax-candles burning on his 
table." 



f-' \g \mj 





Spanish Protestants in the Sixteenth Century 



THE history of the translator of the 
Bible into Castilian is worth 
redeeming from the archives of 
forgotten persecutions. He was Fran- 
cisco Enzinas, born in the ancient city 
of Burgos, in the year 1515. Two 
brothers had been born before liim, and 
reared to manhood in the colleges of 
their native town. A strange old place 
was Burgos; even then renowned for 
antiquity; defended by a strong castle 
looming over the river Arlanzon, which 
swept past the cresent-shaj^ed city of 
dark and winding streets. Its cathe- 
dral was of vast extent, and contained 
the tomb of that national hero, the 
Cid. Churches met one at every cor- 
ner and in every ■plaza. The young 
Enzinas were brought up in the den- 
sest ecclesiastical atmosphere. 

Thence they were removed by their 
worldly-wise father, who thought to 
complete their education, and render 
them more eligible for high posts in 
the Spanish church, by sending them 
to a foreign university. TAventy-four 
universities adorned Spain, and one of 
these, that of Salamanca, boasted twen- 
ty-seven colleges; but the old citizen 
wished his sons to see other lands 
besides their own, and sent them to 
take their degrees at Louvain, in Flan- 
ders. True it is, that all the Low Coun- 
tries owned the same lord paramount 
as the Penmsula, in the person of the 
Emperor Charles V. ; but nothing could 
be more diverse than the habits, man- 
ners, and political constitution of both 
nations. Though fellow-subjects, the 
Fleming and the Spaniard had about 
as much in common as the Englishman 
and the Ionian Islander. 

Louvian was a flourishing university 
in that age. John IV., Duke of Bra- 
bant, had founded it in 1426, endowing 
it with large privileges. A bull from 
Pope Sixtus IV. had conferred on it 
the right of presentation to all livings 
in the Netherlands, which right it 



enjoj't'd down to the earthquake of the 
French IJevolution. The tov/n in 
Avhich the university stood was the 
capital of Austrian Brabant, and was 
enriched also with much trade and 
many manufactures. All is dead now; 
the old fortifications lie smothered in 
pretty gardens. 

The Iji'others Enzinas — Jayme, Juan, 
and Francisco — found at Louvain a 
freedom of thought among their fel- 
low-students which surprised them at 
first. They heard the faith in which 
they had been educated, and Avhich it 
had never occurred to them to doubt, 
canvassed and sifted on everj'^ side. 
They met a celebrated scholar, named 
Cassander, a time-server like Erasmus, 
whose endeavor was to bridge over the 
vast gulf separating the Reformation 
and the Church of Rome. His influ- 
ence hcli^ed them to a certain point of 
enlightenment, and then would have 
retarded their progress; but it was too 
late. Soon there were no more zealous 
Lutherans in the university than the 
three young Spaniards, 

Jayme Enzinas was intended for the 
sacerdotal profession by his father. 
He went to Paris, and entered the 
renowned university of that capital. 
But even his thirst for secular knowl- 
edge fared poorly here. The absurd 
verbal controversies and subtilities of 
the school-men could not satisfy him. 
And he saAv the sect with which he was 
linked in heart suffering untold cruel- 
ties at the order of a dissipated court. 
The ferocity underlying the light 
nature of the Frenchman, which two 
centuries later found such fearful 
expression in the atrocities of the 
Revolution, w^as evinced during the gay 
reign of Francis I. by some of the most 
savage martyrdoms on record. Jayme's 
hour for the like endurance was not 
yet come ; but he set about earning the 
distinction as quickly as might be. He 
returned to Louvain, and devoted him- 



SPANISH PROTESTANTS. 



443 



self to the composition of a catechism 
of the reformed faith in his native 
tongue. 

He went to Antwerp, celebrated for 
printing-presses, to superintend its 
publication. "We hear of the catechism 
that it Avas very simple, to suit the 
humblest capacity; and small in size, 
that it might be easily hidden ; a thing 
to be desired at a period when most 
books were of ungainly dimensions. 
But no museum or librarj'', so far as 
we know, contains a copy of this silent 
messenger from the heart of the Span- 
ish martyr to his fellow-countrymen; 
earthly fame the little treatise had 
none : nevertheless it has not lost its 
reward. 

Jayme's father, thinl^ing perhaps to 
rivet his adhesion to the Church, which 
he had heard was wavering, ordered 
him to visit Rome. The young man 
went, with many misgivings and much 
unwillingness; his sojourn was 
extended to several j'ears, for the old 
citizen of Burgos would not give him 
leave to depart; and he was one who 
could not hide his light under a bushel : 
he must speak the truth that was in 
him. His dearest friend, Juan Diaz, 
was converted by his conversation and 
example; many a day and night did 
they jointly spend over the forbidden 
Scriptures, in the original Hebrew and 
Greek. Jayme's brothers frequently 
wrote, begging him to move to safer 
quarters in Germany; he was preparing 
to do so at last, despairing of the 
parental permission, when he was 
arrested and thrown into prison. A 
Spaniard had denounced him to the 
Roman Inquisition as a heretic. And 
so, a day was appointed for his exami- 
nation, and most of the cardinals and 
bishops in Rome attended, to hear 
what a man so learned had to say. He 
boldly confessed his principles, "and 
defended them with such spirit," 
writes Dr. McGrie, "that his judges, 
irritated at his boldness, condemned 
him instantlv to the flames. The sen- 



tence was loudly called for by such of 
his countrymen as were present." 
Afterwards they tried to get him to 
recant, and promised him life and lib- 
erty if he would appear publicly as a 
penitent, robed with the sanbemto; but 
he refused. Holding firm faith and a 
good conscience, he was burned at the 
stake, on a certain day in the year of 
our Lord 1546. 

A word as to the fate of his dear 
companion, Juan Diaz, who also suf- 
fered martja'dom, but in a manner 
strange to even the annals of intoler- 
ance. His own brother, Alfonzo, learn- 
ing his Lutheranism, was infuriated 
so as to devise his murder. He came 
to the unsuspecting Juan, at Nuberg, 
concealing his wrath under protesta- 
tions of warm affection, while a hired 
assassin waited without ; and one 
night, when Juan retired to rest, 
Alfonzo guarded the door until the 
foul deed was accomplished by his hire- 
ling murderer, whom he had brought 
from Rome for the purpose. One blow 
of an axe had wiped from the family 
a dire disgrace of an apostate member; 
and for this manifestation of zeal 
Alfonzo Diaz was abundantly com- 
mended at his ecclesiastical head-quar- 
ters. 

Meanwhile Francisco Enzinas was at 
Louvain, still studying. His father's 
cherished design for him was the life 
of a soldier ; but the young man's lean- 
ings to literature were too strong. He 
writes to his friend the Polish noble- 
man, Alasco, who had sent him a gift 
of a richly-mounted sword: "All the 
world will, I know, be in arms against 
me on account of the resolution which 
I have formed to devote myself to the 
pursuits of learning. But I can not 
suffer myself, fiom respect to the favor 
of men, to hold the truth in unright- 
eousness, or to treat unbecomingly 
those gifts, which God in His free 
mercy, has been pleased to confer upon 
me, unworthy as I am." 

Alasco was not likely to censure his 



444 



WATSON'S MAGAZINE. 



choice: he had himself left country 
and friends for the gospel's sake. 
Immediately after this period of inti- 
mac}'' with Enzinas, he came to Lon- 
don, and was pastor of a Dutch 
Eeformed Church there, during the 
brief reign of Edward VI. It was 
something for an uncle of the king of 
Poland to become a simple, exiled pas- 
tor because of the truth ; he has been 
styled the Polii^h Reformer; but in the 
province of East-Friesland his efforts 
were crowned with more abundant suc- 
cess. 

He was intimate with the principal 
leaders of the Reformation; therefore 
to him Enzinas applied for introduc- 
tions to Melancthon and Luther. The 
j^oung Spaniard's thought was to 
locate himself at Wittenberg for a 
while, in the university, which was the 
heart of the new religious movement. 
But action, not speculative ease, is the 
Christian's calling. He soon went 
away from Wittenberg and the cordial 
friends he had found there, to jSIay- 
cnce, where he could best complete his 
great design of translating the New 
Testament into the Castilian language. 

AAHien finished, he sent a cop}'^ of his 
performance to his old friends at Lou- 
vain ; many of whom, being Spaniards, 
could judge of the accuracy of the 
work. Their oponion was, that it 
would be an honor and a benefit to 
their native country. It was accord- 
ingly printed at Antwerp, in 1543, with 
this"^title: "The New Testament: that 
is, the New Covenant of our only 
Redeemer and Saviour Jesus Christ, 
translated from Greek into Castilian." 
An unexceptionable title-j)age, might 
one think; but not so thought the 
monks, to whom the volume must be 
suljmitted before publication. A cer- 
tain learned divine detected heresy in 
"the New Covenant," and the obnox- 
ious phrase was expunged. Still worse 
heresy lurked in the adjective "our 
077hj Redeemer;" and the word — a 
truly weighty one — was struck out. 



But this was not the end of sacerdotal 
censure. Charles V. being presented 
with a copy, and permission being 
craved for its circulation, handed it 
over his shoulder to his confessor, 
Pedro do Soto, that he might examine 
whether it contained any thing con- 
trary to the faith. Francisco Enzinas 
waited many days, and at last went to 
the imperial confessor to hear the fate 
of his book, by whom he was arrested 
and cast into prison as a renegade. 
The charges against him, beside that 
heaviest one of translating the Scrip- 
tures, were, that he visited Mehincthon, 
and had translated a treatise by 
Luther. Fifteen months he lingered 
in prison, while a fierce persecution 
raged outside; the dungeon was his ark 
of safety, though he knew it not. And 
one morning he found the doors 
unlocked; through some astonishing 
interposition of Providence, the instru- 
mentality of which he never discov- 
ered, he was able to walk out of his 
prison, and escape unnoticed through 
the town of Brussels. Well might 
IMelancthon write to a friend soon 
afterwards: "Our Spanish friend 
Francisco has returned to Wittenberg, 
lieing set free by a divine interposi- 
tion, without the help of any man, so 
far as he knows, at least." 

But now was Enzinas a thorough 
exile, without home or family on earth : 
for when he was in prison his father 
and uncles had paid him a visit, and 
brought him reproaches instead of 
sympath3^ He was a disgrace to his 
relatives, a dishonor to his country. 
How must he have felt that Heaven 
was indeed his fatherland, and all 
Christian people his closest kin, 
through the Elder Brother, Christ! 

He was deterred from proceeding to 
Italy by the tidings of his brother's 
martyrdom. But there was a certain 
island in the west to which the weary 
reformer looked as a heaven of repose, 
then governed by the marvelous boy- 
king, Edward VI. Melancthon gave 



SPANISH PROTESTANTS. 



445 



Enzinas recommendatory letters to the 
learned young monarch, and to his pri- 
mate Cranmer, the result of which was 
the appointment of Francisco to a 
chair at Oxford. Forewarning of the 
Marian pei-secution drove him back to 
the continent, where he resided at vari- 
ous universities, and occupied himself 
with Spanish translations- Though a 
pei'petnal exile from his dear native 
land, his exertions to spread the truth 
thither ceased only with his life. At 
Bale his death illness came oil, 1570. 

His translation of the Testament had 
created quite a sensation in Spain. The 
people read it with an avidity which 
terrified the inquisitors, and put them 
upon the severest measures of repres- 
sion. It was one of the sparks of heav- 
enly light which was zealously tramp- 
led out b}^ the iron hoof of a persecu- 
tion more perfect than the world has 
elsewhere known, but not until it had 
shone upon the path of eternal life for 
many and many a soul long since in 
the heaA'ens. 

The third Enzinas brother, Juan, 
was less active in the Reformation 
cause than the two we have mentioned, 
though he also was a thorough Protest- 
ant, and an exile for conscience sake. 
His name has survived, more i» con- 
nection with science than theology; he 



wrote learned books on medicine and 
astronomy, which doubtless would now 
provoke a smile from the veriest tyro 
in our colleges; he displayed much 
mechanical skill about such scientific 
instruments as the age knew of. 
Melancthon mentions an orrery of his 
construction, made before that special 
name had been invented. He filled a 
professor's chair at the University of 
Marburg worthily, and was known in 
the learned world chiefly by the Greek 
rendering of his name — Dryander, 
according to the fashion of cotempo- 
rary men of letters. 

Thus Spain drove forth her worth- 
iest sons. These Enzinas brothers are 
but samples of the men who might 
have ennobled and regenerated their 
native land, under God, had they but 
gotten the chance. Spain preferred 
the miserable triumph of intolerance, 
and she enjoyed it to the full. A unity 
of darkness settled thick upon the land, 
for the sun of empire went down while 
it was yet noon. But the nations who 
received the Bible which she rejected, 
and still nationally rejects, have risen 
into grander place and mightier opu- 
lence century by century; have reaped 
the richst fruits of all her discoveries 
and conquests; have seized the scepter 
of the world, which she laid aside for 
the breviary and the scourge. 




A Southerner in the West 



J, M. Dimick 



San Francisco 

WHAT more can be said of San 
Francisco? I hesitate and 
my pen falters, when I 
think of the brilliant writers who 
have described the beauties and fasci- 
nations of this city by the sea. How- 
ever, the emotion inspired by her love- 
liness and the friendships which made 
happ3' several weeks spent here, impel 
me to speak. All Americans admire 
the new San Francisco, and think 
with pride of the invincible courage of 
its builders. We watch with deepest 
interest their enthusiasm and their 
efforts to construct a city even more 
beautiful than the one of long ago. 
There is much to be said on the sub- 
ject of what has already been accom- 
plished and the infinite possibilities of 
the future, jet it is to the past that the 
hearts of San Franciscoans turn, their 
lips speak of practical plans, while 
Avith all their souls they yearn for the 
city of more romantic days. 

Beautiful for situation on its thou- 
sand hills, with the bay gleaming in 
the golden sunlight beyond, and hazy 
mountains still farther in the distance, 
Californians love this fair spot as 
their own life, and always speak of it 
as ''The City" — London, Paris, New 
York are to them of little importance 
when compared with the metropolis of 
the AA'est. 

I shall ever congratulate myself 
that I journej^ed thither before the 
dreadful disaster of 1906 laid low its 
pristine beauty and destroyed the art 
treasures on which m}^ memory still 
lingers with delight. San Francisco is 
situated on a peninsula, its area com- 
prising 47 square miles. Market street 
is the principal thoroughfare, and 
while many large stores are located 
here, the chief district for shopping 



includes Kearny, Grant, and Sutter 
avenues. In the shops there is a mar- 
velous display of jewelry, priceless 
china, Oriental rugs, embroideries and 
art tapestries. These treasures are 
imported directl}' from the "far East," 
and claim to be sold more reasonably 
here than in any other American city. 
The large department stores hold 
many attractions for women, and some 
aver that they are equal to those of 
New York. The fact is, to me, the 
shopping district of San Francsco 
ver}^ closel}'' resembles the commercial 
centre of our greatest city, and one 
does not realize the vast difference, 
until one leaves the business part of 
the town and wanders out where the 
jDalm trees and oleanders grow, giving 
San Francisco an oriental appearance. 
The difference is more pronounced 
when the residence portion of the city 
is reached. Here the lovely hills with 
their terraced lawns and lavish pro- 
fusion, of exquisite flowers rise one 
above another in picturesque beauty, 
and the glimpses of city with blue 
waters in the distance are altogether 
bewitching. 

The central portion of San Fran- 
cisco was in 1906 entirely destroyed, 
churches, theatres, and public build- 
ings were swept awaj^, but this seems 
only a dream, for where the earth 
trembled and the fire raged, peace and 
prosperity now abide. The buildings 
haA'e gone up like magic and the 
memory of those dark days does not 
seem to cast the slightest shadow over 
the optimism of this patriotic people. 

This city is noted for its si^lendid 
hotels. "The Palace," which was 
destroyed and has been rebuilt on a 
more magnificent plan, if possible, 
and rises like some fairy vision from 
the ashes of its past. Here everything 



A SOUTHERNER IN THE WEST. 



441 



that wealth and modern invention can 
devise is procured for the comfort and 
pleasure of guests, who find them- 
selves utterly unfitted for the simple 
life ever after. 

'•The Fairmont" and "St. Francis" 
are also gorgeous buildnigs and are 
quite as up-to-date as the "Palace." 

The "Clitf House" has been rebuilt 
and those who are interested in the 
seals, which have sunned themselves 
from time immemorial on the rocks 
below, will be glad to know these 
creatures were not disturbed by the 



Of the numerous parks and public 
gardens which gladden the ej^e and 
refresh the spirit after sight-seeing. 
Golden Gate park is the handsomest. 
While strolling along the shady walks 
and green slopes, it is hard to realize 
that this verdant beauty was once a 
sandy waste. It was reclaimed from 
the ocean by a people who ever strive 
for the artistic in their environment. 
During the earthquake and fire hun- 
dreds of panic-stricken souls sought 
refuge here and found safety from 
that awful calamit3^ The "Memorial 







-rtr-^ss^^**^ 




Seal Rocks 



disaster of 1906. Their cries are just 
as unmusical as in the past, and their 
ungainly sports can stiii be watched 
from the hotel veranda. 

There is a magnificent driveway 
from the heart of San Francisco lead- 
ing past Golden Gate park and the 
Presidio out among the lovely hills 
which border the Pacific Coast on the 
Southwest of the city. Many hours of 
delight may be spent here drinking in 
the tender beauty of the mountain and 
valley and sk}' and blue water. Such 
scenes should sink deep into the 
human heart and bear fruit in 
memories which sweeten one's life 
forever. 



Museum" is located in this park and 
this with its relics, rich in historic 
association, escaped the ravages of the 
fire which laid low so many institu- 
tions of a similar nature. Only about 
half the valuable books contained in 
Sutro Libraiy were saved and the 
Hopkins Art Institute with its many 
treasures was entirely destroyed. 

Wlien I think of the love of San 
Franciscoans for everything beautiful 
and artstic, I feel sure these things 
will be speedily replaced, and others 
more priceless given, for the pleasure 
and upliftng of the masses in this 
fair city. 

I was interested in the Presidio, 



448 



WATSON'S MAGAZINE. 



which is the militar}^ reservation and 
is a huge park filled with ornamental 
trees and shrubs. Pretty cottages dot 
the grounds and add to the pic- 
turesqueness of the scene. Fuchsias 
grow here in great luxuriance, their 
vines covering whole verandas and 
their star-like blossoms gleaming like 
red jewels among the green leaves. 
Here, too, great hedges of geraniums 
grow out unprotected in the winter 
and lend their beauty to make bright 
the homes of our army ofl'icers, who, 
I understand, entertain their friends 
in a lordly fashion. This park slopes 
in a majestic sweep down to the waters 
of the restless Pacific and here at cer- 
tain hours during tlie afternoon lox^ly 
concerts are given, attracting large 
crowds of people from the citj^ who 
enjo}^ the music wdiile chatting witli 
friends, or perchance a quiet flirtation 
in some shady nook, or there may be 
peace-loving mortals, who prefer 
listening and dreaming alone. 

Mission Dolores, with its atmos- 
phere of romance, still speaks to us of 
the days of Spanish occupation and 
the hopes and fears and prayers of its 
builders. How interesting is the study 
of old California missions, and how 
sad for the '"Fathers" who, year after 
year feel their power and influence 
slipping away. They did a splendid 
work when our country w'as young, the 
glitter and ceremonies of our Roman 
brothers appealed to the first Ameri- 
cans, as the simplicity of Protestant- 
ism could never have done. Their 
work has now been finished, their pur- 
pose is accomplished, their glory is in 
the past, and in this 20th century they 
stand looking backward and yearnng 
for the days that are no more. 

I suppose the China Town of old 
San Francisco was the most unique 
place on our American Continent. 
Here the yellow man was permitted to 
live his own life, eat his own food, 
commit his own crimes, and smoke 
his own opium. In our land of the 



free and home of every nation under 
Heaven, the Chinaman built a city 
which seemed transported from bej'oud 
the seas, so dirty its narrow streets, so 
ungainly its temples, so nauseating the 
odors which permeated its every cor- 
ner. I feel no antipathy for the Chi- 
nese {KS a nation; in fact, when reading 
their history I find much to admire in 
their ancient civilization. Confucius 
was a wonderful man, and did not 
claim to. be more than a reformer. 
During his many journeys over the 
Chinese Empire, his one thought was 
to uplift the i>eople morally and intel- 
lectually. It was after his death that 
governors and princes saw fit to honor 
his wisdom and worship him as a god. 
Later, Buddhism and Taoism were 
introduced and soon the religion of 
the people became a confusion of 
ancestor worship mingled with many 
other superstitions. These fancies, 
Avitli their attendant ceremonies, were 
brought from the Celestial Empire 
and practiced in the joss houses of 
Chinatown. The unpleasant memories 
of my first visit to this queer part of 
San Francisco, however, fade before 
the nevv^ Chinatown which was con- 
structed along modern lines, with the 
thought of good sanitary conditions 
constantly in mind. 

Some of the buildings, which are of 
Oriental architecture, are quite hand- 
some, and tourists find the bazaars on 
(jrant avenue very interesting. ]\Iany 
teachers and missionaries take advan- 
tage of the golden opportunities here 
afforded to uplift these people who 
have come to us from across the seas, 
and thus make a Chinatown which is 
intellectually and spirituall}'^ new, and 
which will become an ornament to our 
civilization. 

The women of San Francisco are 
very beautiful and always faultlessly 
gowned. Being accustomed to a 
daintier type, I found them a trifle 
stout, and some of them lacking in 
animation, but, such complexions ! I 



A SOUTHERNER IN THE WEST. 



449 



am sure the roses in the checks of San 
F'rancisco's fair daughters are rivaled 
only by those which bloom in their 
parks and gardens. The men hre also 
attractive, being large and well 
groomed, with genial natures and 
pleasing manners. 

I was on pleasure bent during my 
stay in the AVest, and did not study 
social, political or other problems with 
a thought of advising my brothers, 
who are Anglo Saxons and fully com- 
petent to manage their own affairs. 
Still, I am impelled to mention the 



their wealth of carnations and roses, 
gifts of the gallant lads, who gayly 
declared they were making strenuous 
effoi'ts to satisfy for one day the appe- 
tite of their fair friends for sweets and 
flowers. 

Soon my eyes sought the scene 
which will ever linger as a jewel in my 
memory. Imagine a brilliant sky 
above, with water just as blue below, 
shaded into dark green where shadows 
lie and countless noble ships and other 
vessels flying the flags of many nations 
spread out before you as far as the eye 




View of San Francisco from Oakland Ferry Boat 



large number of divided families 
which fill hotels and boarding houses, 
leaving once happ}^ homes desolate and 
forsaken. The evil of divorce is 
responsible for these conditions and is 
a menace to onr most sacred institu- 
tion throughout the length and 
breadth of this entire countrj'. 

While in San Francisco I was 
invited b}' a piirty of Southerners — • 
tourists — who had chartered a mag- 
nificent steamer, to joia them and 
spend a day on the Pacific ocean. As 
we walked down the gangway, I 
thought I had never seen a more 
attractive crowd of young people. 
The girls made lovely pictures with 



can reach. There ! VVe sail out 
beyond beautiful Golden Gate into the 
vast Pacific, and gradually the land 
fades from our sight. Hundreds of 
anow-vrhite sea gulls follow our ship 
and fly so close we can almost reach 
out and touch them. Ere long the 
water becomes rough, and our vessel 
swings and rocks to the music of the 
great white waves which dash against 
it, AVith a start, I notice the gay 
voices of my friends have become low 
and subdued, and the faces which were 
so rfidiant at the beginning of our 
journey, are now white and drawn. 
One by one they disappear from deck, 
and the chaperon seems amused when 



450 



WATSON'S MAGAZINE. 



he receives a message demanding his 
immediate presence at the state-room 
of his beautiful young daughter. After 
some time he returns and saj^s, with a 
twinkle in his eye, "She is weeping for 
her mother and will not be comforted ; 
she is also heaping vituperations on 
the West in general and this old ocean 
in particular. She wishes she had 
never heard of California, and as 
much as she thought she loved San 
Francisco, it would be happiness had 
she never seen this city of palms and 
roses. As for the Pacific ocean, she 
would have it completely blotted from 
the map." After a short silence, he 
continued with a laugh, ''Ladies and 
gentlemen, this experience will save 
me a neat little sum of mone}', as I 
promised to take my daughter on a 



trip around the world, and now I 
knoAv she will never be persuaded to 
undertake a real ocean voyage." 

So mAny of our pleasure-seekers 
were sick and miserable it was at 
length decided that we should request 
the captain to return to San Francisco 
without dclaj'^, but that gentleman, 
being very conscientious, replied, "We 
must get our money's worth." Some 
of the young sufferers implored him 
with tears in their eyes and repeated 
assurances that we had already more 
than we expected for the sum 
expended, but he was inexorable. 

The city was not reached until sun- 
set lights bathed the world in 
"unspeakable glory," and changed San 
Francisco into a paradise of dreams. 



"Dear Love, Grant Me But This" 



Alonzo Rice 



Deal' love, grant me hut this and I ain content! 

To serve in the temjyle hidden from idle gaze; 

To heed your loishes, impatient of long delays 
That lovc'^s embassies ivould hinder or prevent 
With the ardor of knightly courtier as he dent 

To spi^ead his nuintle across tlie miry ways 

For queenly feet, and all his courtly phrase; 
Nor less his fate, could I deem as punishment! 

When patient love outlasts the longest night, 
For the sedulous sentry never sleeps at post. 
My thoughts, light-winged to Heaven never tire 

Still seelcing his guardianship till moiming light 
Aye^ grate fid to the night whose shadowy host 
Holds in his dominion my hearfs dear desire! 



Patriotism Begets Heresy 



Chattin Bradway 



AN extraordinary sermon, as the 
crowning event of an extraordi- 
nary occasion — the unveiling of 
the Cohimbus Statue — was preached 
by Mgs. Russell, of St. Patrick's 
Church, Washington, D. C., to the 
Knights of Columbus, during the cele- 
bration of the JSIilitary Mass, June 9th 
last, on the monument grounds. 

Briefly, the sermon is extraordinary 
because it is a varigated fabric of lies, 
misrepresentations and errors, though 
purporting to be a discourse on 
patriotism from the Roman Catholic 
standpoint. Furthermore, the sermon 
is heretical to an extent provocative of 
excommunication of the preacher, or at 
least of reprimand b}^ his supreiors. 

The Sermon. — For the benefit of 
those who have not read the sermon, it 
is here set forth as it appears in The 
Washington Post of June 10th:-— 

"AA^iile there is no official union 
between Church and State, we recog- 
nize all the more forcibly the fact that 
the State needs religion to uphold her 
authority, and religion needs the State 
to guarantee the peace and liberty to 
exercise her sacred calling. 

"The splendor of this occasion is 
enhanced by the presence here of large 
numbers of that representative organ- 
ization of the Catholic Church, the 
Knights of Columbus. They are here 
to speak for 300,000 members through- 
out the United States. The Cross is 
their emblem, and patriotism their 
watchword. Ye patriots of the sword, 
the patriots of the Cross salute you, 
and offer their tribute of honor and 
grateful appreciation. We unite under 
one banner whose motto is 'Our God 
and Our Country.' 

"The vast majority of those here 
present are one in religion with him 



who brought this Western hemisphere 
into relation Avith the civilized world 
by planting the cross upon Its shores; 
are one in religion with those Mary- 
land pilgrims who first proclaimed 
upon these shores the national princi- 
ples which today we prize most highly 
and guard most jealously: freedom of 
conscience and (he right of every citi- 
zen to vote. 

"Our loyalty has sometimes with 
cruel injustice been called into ques- 
tion. With the immortal Carroll of 
Carrollton, the last survivor of the 
signers of the Declaration of Inde- 
pendence, we can say: 'We remember, 
but to forgive.' 

'•Thank God we have never flung 
back the foul slanders that tended to 
besmirch our character. 

'Tt is a worth}' occasion for us in 
this presence to testify our submission 
to the apostolic command, 'Obey your 
rulers.' As Peter spoke, so speaks 
Pius. The true Catholic sees in the 
Cross as well as in the Stars and 
Stripes the symbol of the same 
divine authority — the Church exercis- 
ing authority in things spiritual, the 
State in things civil. 

''No man can be a loyal son of the 
Catholic Church who is disloyal to the 
constituted authority of his country. 
It is meet that in the shadow of that 
noble shaft dedicated to the Father of 
his Country, surrounded b}'^ the monu- 
ments which speak of our nation's past 
and prophesy her future, here in the 
presence of those who suffered and 
fought for the flag, we should be given 
an opportunity to testify our devotion 
and loA'alty to our country. 

'"Peace, be still ye, Avho would sow 
unjust suspicion on your fellow crea- 
tures to reap discord and bitterness in 
a land now flowing with the milk and 



452 



WATSON'S MAGAZINE. 



honey of contentment and fraternal 
benevolence. Peace, be still ! ye 
troubled waters of bigotry, ye foamy 
billows of prejudice; the spirit of 
Christ pervades this land protected by 
the Stars and Stripes. Peace, be still ! 
as in this capital of our country, in the 
midst of the surroundings of our 
nation's power and glory, with the flag 
in one hand and the cross in the other, 
we bow with unfeigned faith and loy- 
alty before our God."' 

To the superficial reader, to one 
unfamiliar with the aims and ambi- 
tions of the Roman Hierarchy in this 
country for political suprcmac}'^, to one 
l^leased more with elegant diction and 
fine sounding words than Avith truth, 
this sermon doubtless must be satisfy- 
ing in a high degree, and warmly 
approved as a brilliant model of patri- 
otism that may serve to guide and 
teach those who have been regarding 
the Roman Hierarch}- as a menace to 
free insttutions. That the sermon may 
have this mission is the hope of the one 
who preached it and of Cardinal Gib- 
bons, who sanctioned it, although the 
sermon contains sentiments clearly 
anti-Papal. But the lack of genuine 
patriotic spirit in the sermon and its 
aim to deceive the unthinking, and to 
allay the wave of Protestant excite- 
ment, is apparent to all who have fol- 
lowed the progress of political Roman- 
ism in our National, State and city 
a if airs. 

Peace, Be Still/— Taking up the 
peroration first, we hear the repeated 
command, "Peace, be still ! Peace, be 
still ! Peace, be still ! to all who would 
sow to reap discord and bitterness; to 
the troubled waters of bigotry and 
foamy billows of prejudice." In apos- 
trophizing thus, the preacher evidently 
has in mind the great storm that is 
gathering over the whole country 
because of the political activities of the 
Roman Hierarchy. Too eager to "come 



to its own"' in this country where relig- 
ious toleration has made a haven ot 
peace for the oppressed of all climes; 
too eager to gain here the political 
power it has lost in lUily, France, Por- 
tugal and Spain, the Roman Catholic 
Chuirh has awakened a ti'eniendous 
uprising against it, determined to 
repulse its further onward march and 
to shear it of political power. This 
])atriotic protest has not arisen out of 
"bigotry," "prejudice," or "unjust sus- 
picions," but rather out of a genuine 
alarm for the safety of Republican 
institutions now menaced by the dead- 
liest political machine ever established 
on earth and operating under the name 
of "religion." Were the church sincere 
in its desire to avert the storm which 
is now coming on, far better would it 
attain the peace it so much desires by 
abandoning its political activities to 
"]\rake America Catholic" and ceasing 
the preaching of deceptive sermons 
and teaching of false patriotism. It 
Avill be only when the church returns 
to its legitimate function of saving 
men's souls that Ave can hone a grain to 
have this land "flowing with the milk 
and honey of contentment and frater- 
nal baneA'olence." 

Some of the disturbing political 
actiA^ties are the opposition of Cardi- 
nal Gil:)bons and his associates to the 
popular election of Senators (a meas- 
ure suceessfulh^ passed by Congress 
and aAvaiting ratification by the 
States), the initiatiA-e and referendum 
(upheld by the United States Supreme 
Court), and th« recall of judges; the 
blocking in the House of Representa- 
tiATS of the immigration bill passed by 
the Senate; the condemnation of our 
public school system, and endeavors to 
obtain public monies for sectarian pur- 
poses; the OA-erriding and nullification 
of our civil laws; the preA^ention of the 
adoptioH of planks in party platforms 
inimical to the best interests of the 
Church; and the constantly increasing 
power in our executiAT, judicial and 



PATRIOTISM BEGETS HERESY. 



453 



legislative departments of National, 
State and municipal government. 

No Official Union Between Church 
and State— Mgr. Russell frankly 
admits there is no official union 
between Church and State in this 
countr}', but will he deny the existence 
of an vnofficial union, or that which is 
equfvalent to it? Many have come to 
realize that there is, in fact, a very 
effective unofficial union, because too 
plainly can be seen the hand of the 
Pope and his priests at work in all 
branches of government. Though at 
present the union is not as complete as 
the Roman Hierarchy wishes, the 
Church and State union ideal has been 
set by recent Popes for which all Cath- 
olic citizens of the country are to work 
incessantly and unitedly, for, by the 
union of Church and State, the Pope 
becomes supreme ruler in civil as well 
as spiritual affairs. 

Pius IX., in an encyclical of Decem- 
ber 8, 1864, said, "The Church and 
State should be united, and the eccle- 
siastical power superior to the civil." 

Leo XIII., in an encyclical on 
human liberty in 1888, held" that, ''All 
rights belonging to society exist in the 
Church," and hence there can be no 
proper separation of Church and State. 
In an encyclical on the Christian 
Constitution of States, the same 
Pontiff, 1885, speaks with much con- 
cern on the theory of liberty then 
advanced for the separation of Church 
and State. Hear his wails: 

"To exclude the Church, founded by 
God Himself, from the business of life, 
from the power of making laws, from 
the training of youth, from domestic 
society, is a grave and fatal error." 

"To wish the Church to be subject to 
the civil power in the exercise of her 
duty is a great folly and a sheer 
injustice." 

"There was once a time when States 
were governed by the principles of the 
Gospel teachings. Church and State 
were happily united." 



State Needs Religion to Uphold Her 
Authority. — What religion does the 
State need ? According to the Catholic 
Church, of course, the Catholic religion 
is the one the State needs. But why 
the Catholic religion any more than 
the Jewish, Mormon, Mohammedan, 
Brahmin religion, or the religion of 
any Protestant sect? Who is to deter- 
mine the religion suitable for the 
upholding of the authority of the 
State? The Pope, of course, and so in 
his encyclical of December 8, 1864, 
Pope Pius declared: — 

"The Roman Catholic religion 
should be the only religion of the 
State and' all other worship should be 
excluded." 

So, also Leo XIIL, in a letter of 
November 1, 1885, says it is "not law- 
ful for the State * * * to hold in 
equal favor different kinds of relig- 
ion." Naturally the Roman Catholic 
religion is the one that should have 
preference. 

No, the State needs not religion to 
uphold her authority. The early his- 
tory of this country — prior to the time 
the Roman Hierarchy became the bal- 
ance of political power — is ample 
proof that the State is better off with- 
out an upholding religion. A^liat more 
eloquent example can we have to 
answer ]Mgr. Russell's contention than 
Italy, France, Portugal and Spain, 
where the State has repudiated the 
Church ? 

""Generations before Pope Pius IX. 
and Leo XIII. proclaimed the Roman 
Catholic religion as the only religion 
for supporting the State, our fore- 
fathers emphatically denied this prin- 
ciple and recognized that human lib- 
erty and freedom of conscience can be 
secured only where Church and State 
are eternally separated. Too clearly 
did the examples of the European 
church-ridden countries stand out 
before them for their guidance, and for 
the Church now to declare that the 



454 



WATSON'S MAGAZINE. 



State needs a religion to uphold it, is 
the veriest rot and damnable treason. 

Religion Needs State to Guarantee 
It Peace and Liberty. — Most decidedly 
the Roman Catholic religion needs the 
State to uphold it, and it is for that 
purpose that the Knights of Columbus 
and other Church societies are aiming 
to so control this Government that the 
Roman Catholic religion can have 
guarantees of freedom and liberty in 
carr^'ing out its schemes in this coun- 
try, as it has done in other countries, 
of jDauperizing the peojDle, stifling the 
ambitions of the race, and dwarfing the 
mind of man. No religion that appeals 
to the heart of man needs the civil 
poAver of the State to uphold it. Do 
the Protestant sects require the author- 
ity of the State to guarantee them 
freedom and liberty? Such a guaran- 
tee would only encourage despotism 
and licentiousness. In important 
countries where Church and State 
have been united, the State has sev- 
ered its connection with the Church 
and has forced her to stand or fall, 
according to her own inherent merits. 
It is natural for the Roman Catholic 
Church to jDreach in this country the 
need of the State's jDrotection to relig- 
ion when we look at the recent history 
of France, Italy and Portugal, for 
otherwise the Catholic Church Avould 
be ignominiousl}^ driven out wherever 
she tried to rule. Had the Church in 
those countries mentioned enjo3^ed the 
peace and liberty which she maintains 
is her due, the people would still be 
under the tyranny of the Pope. 

Freedom of Conscience Jealously 
Prized and Guarded. — This is another 
woof in the "fabric of lies" and is a 
rash doctrine for Mgr. Russell to 
preach, because freedom of conscience 
is contrary to the dictates of the 
Popes. Pope Leo XIIL, in 1885, in 
his encyclical letter on the Christian 
Constitution of States, quotes Gregory 
XVL, in condemning doctrines such as 
the: "right for individuals to form 



their own personal judgments about 
religion or that each man's conscience 
is his sole and all-suflicing guide, or 
that it is lawful for every man to pub- 
lish his own views whatever they may 
be." 

Ix'o XII r. also says, in the same 
letter, 

"Liberty of thinking, and of "pub- 
lishing, whatsoever each one likes, 
without any hindrance, is not in itself 
an advantage over which society can 
wisely rejoice. On the contrary, it is 
the fountainhead and origin of many 
evils." 

"The unrestrained freedom of think- 
ing and of openly making known one's 
thoughts is not inherent with the rights 
of citizens, and is by no means to be 
reckoned worthy of favo;i- and sup- 
port." 

In the encyclical letter on human 
liberty of June 20, 1888, Pope Leo 
XIIL declared:— 

''It is quite unlawiul to demand, to 
defend, or to grant unconditional 
freedom of thought, of speech, of 
writing, or of worship, as if these 
were so many rights given by nature to 
man." 

Thus the Popes condemn the right 
of freedom of conscience and of per- 
sonal liberty generally in terms that 
cannot be mistaken, yet how can Mgr. 
Russell preach to the contrary and in 
the presence of Cardinal Gibbons, 
without calling upon himself repri- 
mand, excommunication and curses? 
Freedom of conscience is a cardinal 
princii3le of all true religion and it is 
the dut}'^ of civil government to guar- 
antee to the people unlimited enjoy- 
ment of it, by refusing to enact laws 
aiming at its restriction. 

Right to Vote Highly Prized and 
Jealously Guarded. — The right to vote 
implies the rule in civil affairs by the 
will of the majority, as expressed by 
the ballot. Majority rule and sover- 
eignty in the people are other expres- 
sions of "the right to vote." Now, 



PATRIOTISM BEGETS HERESY. 



455 



these thing's Mgr. Russell says, the 
Roman Catholics prize most highly. 
Here are some more woofs in the 
fabric of lies, if the Popes are to be 
taken seriously, 

Leo, in his letter on Roman Libert}'', 
1888, said : 

"The doctrine of supremacy of the 
greater numbers and that all- right and 
duty reside in the majorit}'^, is in con- 
tradiction to reason." 

In the letter Immortali Die 1885, he 
says: "All public power must pro- 
ceed from God," and he claims himself 
to be the channel through which that 
power is delegated. But here in 
America the underlying principle is 
that all power resides in the people and 
they delegate it to their representa- 
tives. Remember the preamble of the 
United States Constitution: "We, the 
people of the United States * * * 
do ordain and establish this Constitu- 
tion of the United States of America." 
Did this declaration recognize that 
public power comes from God through 
the Pope? Hardly. 

In the same letter, Leo XIII. says : — 

"In a society grounded upon such 
maxims (as that all men are equal in 
the control of their life, each is his 
own master and free to think on every 
subject as he may choose and to do 
whatever he may like to do) all gov- 
ernment is nothing more or less than 
the icill of the people^ and the people, 
being under the power of itself alone, 
is alone its own ruler." 

Thus we see he inveighs uncompro- 
misingl}^ against the People's Rule or 
the rule by the majority. 

The present Pope, Pius X., is more 
despotic in his teaching, for in a letter 
addressed to the French Archbishops 
and Bishops, and directed against the 
Democratic society known as "The 
Sillon," he denounces "that kind of 
Democracy that goes so far in perver- 
sity at to attribute in society sover- 
eignty to the people and to aim at sup- 
pression and leveling down of classes." 



As long as the Church has not suf- 
ficient political power in this country, 
it prizes most highly the right of its 
people to vote, because through that 
right the Church can more quickly and 
more successfully "Make America 
Catholic." It hopes to elect more mem- 
bers to Congress so that the Church 
will "come to its own." It hopes to 
elect more members to State legisla- 
tures, to municipal offices, and to the 
judicial bench, and after securing its 
needed power in the civil affairs of 
Nation, State and municipality, it will 
no longer rejoice in the right of vote, 
or the right of the people to govern 
themselves, because such a principle is 
contrary to what the Popes have 
taught, that all public power is of 
God and is dispensed from Him 
through the Pope. 

To accomplish all the Roman Hier- 
archy aims to accomplish through this 
most highly prized right to vote, the 
Church vote must be controlled as a 
unit. It can be and is so controlled. 
President Taft knows it, because it 
was through the control of the Catholic 
vote that he was elected, and Mr. 
Bryan knows it, because he was 
defeated by it. The present nominees 
for oft'ice in the great political parties 
also know it, because they are catering 
to the Hierarch}^ for the solid Catholic 
vote. 

At times we hear priests themselves 
boast of the control they have on the 
votes of their people. For instance, 
listen to the words of Father Mulry, of 
Jersey City: — 

"I am a Roman Catholic priest but 
this priest yields to no man in his 
manhood. It stirs all fighting blood 
that I have got. I tell you I'll have a 
hand in it. There, are G,000 or 7,000 
men under my control. Most of them 
are voters, and when you approach a 
man with the votes you will have to 
listen to him." 

This is Father Mulry's statement 
when urging his Catholics to take 



456 



WATSON'S MAGAZINE. 



active part in elections. Is it any 
wonder that the priests of this country 
guard most jealously, the right to vote 
when we know that every priest is a 
ruler in his own community, and can 
direct the votes of his people? 

Another reason for rejoicing in- the 
right to vote is that illiterate immi- 
grants can be railroaded into this 
country and can in a short space of 
time be made eligible to vote. These 
immigrants know nothing about our 
governmental institutions and policies 
and must rely upon their priests for 
guidance in the manner of voting. In 
view of this, it is natural that the 
Catholic Church should oppose as a 
unit any immigration bill which would 
cut off this avenue of enlarging the 
hosts of Catholic votes. 

Catholic Loyalty Cruelly Ques- 
tioned. — Mgr. Russell complains that 
Catholics have often been questioned 
crflelly about their loyalty to country. 
This Government stands for political 
equality, for separation of Church and 
State, freedom of conscience, freedom 
of speech, freedom of press, etc., all of 
which have been declared to be errors 
by the Pope. It is therefore natural 
to question whether there can be patri- 
otic loyalty in the bosom of a loyal 
Catholic. A Catholic, to be lo3'al, must 
stand for what the Pope stands and 
uphold it even to death, then how can 
he at the same time uphold American 
institutions? Another important prin- 
ciple of Americanism is that which 
recognizes the public schools as the 
preservers of political libert}'. Does 
Mgr. Russell wonder at our question- 
ing the loyalty of Catholics, when our 
school systems are condemned as fol- 
lows : — 

''Education outside of the Roman 
Catholic Church is damnable heresy." 
— Pope Pius IX. 

"Education must be controlled by 
Roman Catholic authorities, even to 
war and bloodshed." — Catholic World. 

"I frankly confess that the Roman 



Catholics stand before the country as 
the enemies of the public schools." — 
Father Phelan. 

"The public schools have produced 
notliing but a godless generation of 
thieves and blackguards." — Father 
Schaner. 

"It will be a glorious day in this 
country when, under the laws, the 
school system shall be shivered to 
pieces." — Catholic Telegraph. 

"We must take part in the elections, 
move in a solid mass in every State 
against the party pledged to sustain 
integrity of the public schools." — Car- 
dinal McClosky. 

Foul Slander Besmirching Catholic 
Character Never Flung Bade. — AVliy 
Mgr. Russell, the Avhole political aim 
of the Roman Hierarchy is a foul 
slander that you are constantly hurl- 
ing at us. You and the rest of your 
associates, secretly disapprove of our 
American Government l)ecause you are 
dissatisfied with it and you want to 
model it after the principles of the 
"true Church." The Pope has so com- 
manded. Is it not a slander to enjoy 
the benefits of this Government and 
then aim and work as you are for its 
destruction? Is it not a foul slander 
to attempt to direct, control, or resist 
legislation so that the Church "avIU 
come to its own" in this country where 
Church is not to be recognized? 

Obey Your Rulers. _".ls Peter 
Sj?oke, So Speaks Pius.''' — Earlier in 
the sermon, Mgr. Russell speaks of 
Roman Catholics having freedom of 
conscience. How can there be freedom 
of conscience in a Roman Catholic 
when he must obey his rulers? Obey- 
ing one's conscience is the highest 
guide for man, and freedom of con- 
science is essential for man's welfare. 
This doctrine of "obeying your rulers" 
has no response in the heart of any 
loyal American. He believes that all 
power is derived from the people and 
that the rulers, so called, are only 
servants to whom the people have 



PATRIOTISM BEGETS HERESY. 



457 



delegated their power. Obedience to 
law is not synonymous with "obey 
your rulers" because the law is the 
voice of the people, which voice they 
themselves have agreed to respect. 
Rulers in the Roman Catliolic Church 
are selected by the worst form of party 
machinery ever conceived, and people 
of the Church, the rank and file, never 
select the rulers, and hence there is no 
duty for those rulers to be obeyed. 

Loyalty for ConHtitvtcd Authority 
Essential in a Loyal Roman Catliolic. 
— Mgr, Russell evidently forgets the 
Ne Temere and Motu Proprio decrees. 
The constituted authority in National 
and State governments is nullified by 
these decrees. Loyal Roman Catholics 
must honor the decrees and hence they 
cannot be loyal to constituted author- 
ity. If Mgr. Russell means, by consti- 
tuted authority, the aurhority of State 
when the Church is united with it, 
then of course he is preaching the 
truth, because then a loyal Roman 
Catholic must be loyal to the consti- 
tuted authority which is subservient to 
and governed by the Church, but at 
the present time no Roman Catholic 
who is loyal to the Pope can be a true 
American patriot, nor is Mgr. Russell 
one, because he is not loyal to consti- 
tuted authority, nor does he preach 
such loyalty to his following. 

Where is the boaster of "Loyalty to 
Constituted Authority" when the Pope 
speaks thus: 

"From God has the duty been 
assigned to the Church not only to 
interpose resistance, if at any time the 
State rule should run counter to relig- 
ion, but, further, to make a strong 
endeavor that the power of the Gospel 
may pervade the law and institutions 
of the nations." — Encyclical Letter — 
The Chief Duties of Christians as Citi- 
zens. Jan. 10, 1890, by Leo XIII. 

Think of it, the Church interposing 
resistance against the State advised by 
the Pope. Was it to supply this resist- 



ance that the Knights of Columbus 
were organized? 

This statement by the Pope is but a 
more veiled and more refined way of 
expressing the real sentiment in the 
hearts of most priests and prelates, 
and given utterance to by Father 
Phelan in a sermon preached at St. 
Louis, June P>0, 1012, Avherein he used 
the following treasonable words: — 

"If the Government of the United 
States were at Avar with the Church, 
we would say tomorrow : to hell ivit/i 
the Goverywient of the United States; 
and if the Church and all the govern- 
ments of the world were at war we 
would say, to hell with all the govern- 
7ne7\ts of the worlds 

Now, is not that the true' senti- 
ment being taught to Roman Catholic 
citizens under the profession of true 
loyalty to constituted authority? 

By the foregoing analysis, it has 
been clearly shown that the sermon, 
evidently approved by Cardinal Gib- 
bons, contains doctrines that are 
obviously in opposition to Papal 
teachings. The question arises, why 
was a sermon of this deceptive charac- 
ter preached at that time? The 
answer appears to be that the Roman 
Hierarchy fully realized the approach- 
ing storm that had arisen against its 
pernicious political activities, and 
hence anything — deception, lies, mis- 
representations, — presented in a plaus- 
ible manner and widely disseminated 
throughout the country had to be 
resorted to, and well did the subsidized 
press give publicity to this Military 
Mass Sermon which is a veritable 
fabric of lies. 

Note. — The encyclicals of the Popes 
referred to in this article are con- 
tained, with the most comprehensive 
collection of facts relating to the 
political history of the Church of 
Rome, in "Political Romanism," a 
book of 250 pages, published by the 
writer and obtainable from him at 
Washington, D. C. Price, 50 cents. 



The Resurrected South and Her Types of 

Leadership 



Farrar Newberry 



THERE has been no absolutely 
impartial history Avritten of the 
period of the late war between 
the sections, nor can there be until the 
generation which participated in and 
saw it shall have passed off the scene 
of activity, and the influence of its 
immediate presence shall be lost. This 
will take some years yet, j^erhaps 
decades. There have, to be sure, been 
good histories of the period, many of 
them; but none marked throughout 
with purely imbiased statements. And 
this, per force. 

But of that period of development 
which the country as a whole has 
entered upon since the "imminent 
deadly breach" all writers arc cog- 
nizant. Since the Civil War the North 
has changed but little. Quickly for- 
getting the struggle which meant so 
little to her, compared with its tre- 
mendous, life-and-death significance to 
the South, the North went on her way 
of industrial and material progress, 
unmarred and unmarked by the shock 
of arms. While the shattered fortunes 
of the rich planters were being 
collected b}^ ncAv hands; while the tem- 
porarily broken hopes of a section- 
loving people were in the death-shock 
of reconstruction, and the gloom of 
vanquished armies and pillaged homes 
hung like a terrible pall over the peo- 
ple of the South during the decade fol- 
lowing Appomattox, the North, rich in 
materials, in whose ears rumbled no 
echoes of deafening gigantic machinery 
of war, went on her way rejoicing. 
Her soldiers returned bearing the 
insignia of victor}^ to plenteous tables 
and glowing firesides, and quickly for- 
got the four-year episode. To be sure 
there were vacant places, thousands of 
them, around the hearths of Northern 



homes; and many a husbandless and 
fatherless inmate could but 

"Sigh for the touch of a vanished 

hand. 
And the sound of a voice that was 

still." 

But there was no deadly rift in the 
civilization itself; no track of devasta- 
tion through the country; no great 
destructive mark, the process of oblit- 
eration of which would consume 
decades. Hence her development, her 
ncAv period of expansion and of 
growth, was speedily entered upon. 

In the South this progress was of 
necessity comparatively slow. In this 
paper I am to discuss some phases of 
that development, and to characterize 
the new leadership of men and things 
that has come upon the stage in the 
South's gradual upbuilding; we shall 
give as far as is possible the innate 
being, the interior progressive motives, 
of that dominant element, that is 
moving the South onward and upward. 
To do this I shall make, of course, 
some comparisons of present-day con- 
ditions with those prevalent in the 
South before the Civil War. How far 
the old inheritances from the ante- 
bellum i)eriod have been interwoven 
with the fiber and texture of the peo- 
ples' being, and how far those ideas 
and ideals of the past have been and 
are influencing the Southern life of 
today, with the advantages and disad- 
vantages of this influence, — these are 
material to the theme. 

With such men as General Lee to 
lend the power of their few remaining 
years to the encouragement of the 
down-cast peoi:)le to peaceful pursuits 
— men who even in that time of 



THE RESURRECTED SOUTH. 



459 



strained relation and rabid passion and 
bitter hate, became the fearless advo- 
cates of the New South of forgotten 
animosity and buried prejudice, the 
South of determination and of hope — 
under the leadership of men of this 
type the people gathered inspiration to 
return to their work and adjust them- 
selves as best they could to the new 
conditions, arisen with the new age. 

The institution of slavery from 1789 
to 18G1 placed the South in a natural 
attitude of defiance toward the North. 
This was the consequence of circum- 
stances; and the feeling of resentment 
at the critical darts and "shafts of 
malice" from the fierce abolitionists 
was justifiable because it was natural. 
And there is such a spirit today of 
veneration for the past, such a 
"worship of ancestors," as shows that 
the spirit of impartiality has developed 
slowly. The impression is still pre- 
valent among some, for instance, that 
the aristocratic Cavalier blood pre- 
dominated, and still does, in the 
make-up of the Southern civilization. 
Such people do not know, and it is the 
agreed mission of Southern leadership 
to teach them, that men of the t3q3e of 
Jefferson, Calhoun, Davis and others 
of the boasted so-called "rich-bloods," 
came from the English middle class, 
the bone and sinew of colonial growth, 
and the dominant element in the later 
civilization. 

But the old arguments for States' 
Rights under the Constitution, and for 
the justification of secession, are sel- 
dom revived among the real thinking 
people of the section, and the senti- 
ment connected with these arguments 
is losing power in the South. There 
never was an issue more dead than 
this; and the South recognizes it. As 
to whether the South had the better of 
the argument in the fierce contest on 
the Senate floor, scarcely anyone now 
troubles himself to consider, except, of 
course, in the analysis and dissection of 
the speeches incident to the study of 



history in the Southern schools. All 
thinkers know that it was impossible 
to decide so momentous a question by 
heated argument; that the only solu- 
tion was the "armed tribunal;" and 
none gives thought to making the 
appeal again. 

So that whatever still remains of the 
fondness for the "old inheritances" 
among the people, made sacred by the 
constant usage of the sires, and tried 
in the "intestine shock," when 

Mad disaster 

Followed fast and followed faster, 

to the final closing-in at Appomattox; 
this we may say is but the transformed 
dormant influence that is making inev- 
itably for the development of the 
Southern people, and limits but little, 
if at all, their breadth and clearness of 
vision of the new avenues of progress, 
and their realization of themselves as 
but a part of the great national life. 

The Southern leaders do not dis- 
parage this veneration of the past, nor 
should the North, so long as it is kept 
within the proper bounds. The purity 
of the old South's civilization, the 
genial hospitality and cordiality, the 
lofty culture among her leaders, are 
the legacy not of the South merely, but 
of the nation. And it is the duty of 
the North cordially and frankly to 
recognize the ability of men like Lee 
and Jackson, — men who rise above the 
local sentiment into really national 
figures. And the North for the most 
part is doing this. 

The true leadership in the New 
South of today, great as the miscon- 
ception is in some parts of the North, 
is in no way characterized by men of 
the Thomas Dixon, Jr., type. He rep- 
resents the spirit of rabid and caustic 
reaction. I remember Avhen a student 
in Nashville, Tenn., seeing the "Clans- 
man" played one afternoon. And I 
remember the impression of intense 
vitrolic hatred for the negro which it 



460 



WATSON'S MAGAZINE. 



placed temporarily in the breasts of 
those Southern boys, myself among 
them. This was when the "Clansman" 
first came to be played, then only in 
the cities and the larger towns. After 
the performance I remember the curses 
and villifications that I heard. 1 
believe that a negro's life would not 
have been safe in that auditorium. 
Now Southern leadership realizes the 
intense wrong of this. It asks the 
question, AVhat matters it now, that the 
Keconst ruction period was fraught 
with the constant dread of the "black 
peril?" Probably Mr. Dixon's por- 
trayal is really marked by fairness and 
a considerable degree of accuracy, 
especially as to some localities. But 
even if it were exact and accurate as to 
the South as a whole, what is to be 
gained by renewing these scenes? The 
spirit of Southern leadership of today 
no more sanctions the "Clansman" 
than it does such works as Chas. L. C. 
Miner's "Real Lincohi," the task of 
which is the portrayal, wath comments, 
of the evil editorials of Northern 
inimical newspapers against the great 
leader. Rather does it find expression 
in the words of Grady at the New 
York banquet, when he spoke of the 
martyred President as the "first typical 
American." It looks with kindred dis- 
gust upon efforts to renew the heat of 
passion against the negro — usually to 
be seen in lynchings, and occasionally 
the outcry of some insignificant news- 
paper — and the bitter denunciation of 
the South and the old Southern cause, 
by Senator Heyburn, the objection 
from him and others to the placing of 
Lee's statue in the Hall of Fame, and 
the spirit which caused to be erased 
from the long bridge built when he was 
Secretary of War, the name of Jeffer- 
son Davis. 

Likewise the real thinking people of 
the South take no stock in — rather do 
they discourage with all their might — 
the occasional suggestion of some 
blatant fire-eater that the Klan of the 



Ku Klux be reorganized for the fur- 
ther protection of the Southern white 
women. The original plan of the 
founders of this secret order no doubt 
provided for the best expedient in that 
troublous period just following the 
War. The motive was high, and the 
results in most cases satisfactory. But 
the South knows that its reinception 
would mean the sanctioning of mob 
law, which in most places she is so 
intent upon prohibiting. 

So then the dominant effort in the 
South is stringent!}' opposed to these 
things. She is becoming too engrossed 
in her progress along all lines to be 
worried about the old matters, or take 
much thought of them. "P"orgettmg 
those things," then, are words fittingly 
applied to the new era of expansive 
growth. 

What, noAv, is this growth? What 
the spirit of the new civilization? 
^Miat its dominant note? Who its 
leaders? 

The South has entered upon a period 
of engrossing financial, industrial and 
agricultural development. At the 
opening of the War vast estates were 
owned by wealthy slave-holders. These 
men were the recognized leaders of 
the section. A spirit of easy social 
prestige and freely assumed authority 
made them the real rulers of the South 
before the War. These gentlemen in 
the slave-holding States were for the 
most part well acquainted with each 
other. While there was as pure a rep- 
resentative system of Democratic gov- 
ernment as there could have been under 
the slavery regime, j'et these were 
really the men in power. The post- 
bellum and post-reconstruction period 
marks the development of the under 
man, the small farmer, the "poor 
white," if you please. The old estates 
were split to pieces; the great class of 
poor non-slaveholding whites, hitherto 
shut out of everything except a bare 
living for the most part, entered into 
free competition with the freed negro. 



THE RESUERECTED SOUTH. 



461 



and greatly aided b}^ the natural vast 
superiority of the Anglo-Saxon over 
the African, soon began to go upward 
in the scale. Today the term "poor 
white" is a niisnonier. It is seldom 
heard. The freeing of the slaves was 
their salvation. To be sure, there are 
poor white farmers in the South, but 
the vast body of that class has devel- 
oped into the backbone of the Southern 
Democracy of today. So the "sub- 
merged tenth," really vastly more than 
one-tenth in this case, has been ele- 
vated into a position of power and 
prosperity. 

The scientific, progressive farmer of 
the South, who takes a pride in his 
success at the county and State fairs, 
the healthy rivalry of neighbors and 
fellow-citizens, and in the election of 
the most capable men of his class to 
office, having forgotten for the mo.st 
part the old prejudices — this is a type 
of the Southern leader of today. From 
the huts of previous poverty and 
squalor these men have moved into 
spacious and sanitary farm-houses. 
Even through the most poverty- 
stricken sections of the South their 
houses are for the most part painted or 
white-washed, and a general air of 
prosperity and contentment reigns. 
The increase in the values of farm 
lands in the South during the decade 
of ICOO to 1010 was, so far as is 
reported, 51.6 per cent., and in the 
value of the twelve leading crops 92.4 
per cent. Ihese figures compare favor- 
ably with those of other sections. 

The dominant spirit of the agricul- 
tural South is hailing the immigrant — 
of the right' sort. The leadership in 
this has taken the stand that it is better 
to have the blood pure and the civiliza- 
tion uncorruptcd than to have the 
filled coffer and the bursting garner. 
Nevertheless, the fact remains that the 
thirty-five million (approximately) 
people of the South, of which number 
about eight-nintlis are in the rural dis- 
tricts, are not enough to cultivate the 



land with suff'icient intensity. The 
people here are not only practically all 
Americans, but are Southern born as 
well. There are only about one-half 
million Northerners in the South, and 
these have gone mostly to the cities, 
where they have assumed the roles of 
capitalists, bosses or teachers. In the 
North there are perhaps eleven or 
twelve million foreign-born jjeople, 
Avhile there are only about three hun- 
dred and three thousand in the South. 
It is not within the bounds of this 
paper to gi\^e the reasons why they 
have not come to the South in greiiler 
numbers. But the South is bidding for 
them, and the future South will have 
them, all too many perhaps. Foreign 
colonies like the German colonies in 
Texas, the Italian communities in the 
lower parts of the Mississippi valley, 
and those' living on plantations like 
"Sunny Side," established in 1898 by 
Austin Corbin in southeast Arkansas, 
where there are noAv about one hundred 
and fifty families, are not only indus- 
trially profitable to the South, but they 
are making good citizens besides, and 
m this way are an addition to the 
civilization. 

So much for the developing leader- 
ship in the great eight-ninths of the 
South. These eight-ninths are not 
altogether led by the representatives of 
their own class. Far from it. The 
principal leading, in fact, is being done 
from the cities. Small as these popu- 
lation centers are in the South, com- 
pared with those of the North, never- 
theless it is from here, and especially 
from the capitals of the States, that 
rule in politics and industry emanates. 
The South has not been without its 
share, in the recent mighty influx of 
country boys to the cities. There the 
law and politics of the States are cen- 
tering. 

Of course the small number of for- 
eigners who are teaching in the 
schools and colleges, while wielding an 



462 



WATSON'S MAGAZINE. 



important influence, are not numerous 
enough for more than bare mention. 

In some of these States powerful 
and corrupt political machines have 
been built up; but public sentiment is 
crystallizing in telling opposition to 
these. Witness the recent election in 
Mississippi. Whatever may be said in 
criticism of Mr. Vardaman, the signifi- 
cant fact remains that he has appeared 
against the machine, the bribery, th-i 
fraud, formerly so powerful in his 
commonwealth, directly to the people. 
AVhile Mr. Vardaman should not 
necessarily be taken as a type of the 
leadership of the South — though many 
of the accounts of his "fire-eating'' pro- 
clivities are no doubt imaginary and 
exaggerated — ^yet his method of appeal- 
ing directly to his constituents, the 
people of his State, over the heads of 
the bribe-ridden bosses, is* commend- 
able, and may be accepted as progres- 
sive, and prophetic of further cleans- 
ing among the "higher clique" of 
Southern politicians hitherto usurping 
power. 

The leadership, too, comprises the 
modern "captain of industry" of the 
South. This captain has, of course, no 
time to think of "old traditions," no 
time to dwell on prejudice. He is the 
t5'pe that is purely business. He is all- 
absorbed in this. He is the son or 
grand-son of an ex-Confederat€ sol- 
dier. As a boy he heard from the 
fireside of his paternal home tales of 
how his father slew the Yankees. Per- 
haps a hatred of the North was 
instilled in him. Perhaps, like Hanni- 
bal, he was taken to some altar and 
made to vow eternal enmity to that sec- 
tion, by the hand of some individual in 
whose enormous soldiery his father 
perished. But he has no time to think 
of these things now. If he ever does 
think of them at all, they do not 
amount to controlling predominant life 
impulses. In the great whirl of busi- 
ness in whose realm he reigns, there is 



no place for such. In his sphere he is 
a Southern leader of the new type. 

Along the with manufacturer may 
be classed the corporate attorney of the 
modern South, the big insurance man, 
the promoter of miscellaneous projects, 
the big banker, the upper engineer, and 
others. 

It has been claimed that about the 
only way in which these men lead is 
sociall}'. But this is untrue. There is 
very little class distinction, socially, in 
the South today; perhaps less than in 
the North. In speaking of the social 
phase of course the negro is not to be 
considered, just as he is not thought of 
when speaking of the same topic as 
applied to the North or any other sec- 
tion. Then, too, the statement must be 
confined chiefly to the people of the 
country and the small town. In the 
city, to be sure, the wealth line in a 
way bars the poorer classes. Just as it 
does in the North; no more. But gen- 
erall}^ speaking, there is practically no 
social difference between the family 
whose income is a thousand dollars a 
year, and the one whose income is 
fifteen to thirty thousand. And there 
are comparatively few of the latter 
class. 

The pulpit, the bar and the press are 
exerting a powerful stimulus to the 
new leadership of the uplifted South. 
To be sure some of our cross-roads 
editors, sometimes also Influential men 
in their limited communities, are of the 
blatant, flaming, dangerous sort, either 
because, as is rarely the case, they hap- 
pen to be old men who were Confed- 
erate soldiers; or because, as is more 
commonly true, they are of the sort 
which naturally likes to start a commo- 
tion about anything, and, generally in 
localities where there has grown up 
through - force of circumstances a 
special hatred toward the negro, they 
give vent to their natural propensity 
to "shake the red rag" of exaggerated 
tradition. But on the whole the press 
of the South is conservative. So is the 



THE RESURRECTED SOUTH. 



463 



pulpit. The average Southern preacher 
never appropriates his pulpit to the use 
of proclaiming the glory of the Old 
South in a way that Avould indicate an 
effort to revive old hatred or even ani- 
mosit3^ And the bar of the South is 
perhaps even less inclined to do so. 

I have reserved for this latter place 
a brief discussion of another jDhase of 
leadership — and that by far the most 
important. I refer to the recent agita- 
tion for better educational facilities in 
the South. Submerged in the dense 
thraldom of ignorance that followed 
in the wake of war, the South was 
slower in getting a new start in this 
than perhaj^s any other line of devel- 
ojjment. The new educational system 
Avas to be necessarily radically differ- 
ent from that prevailing in the ante- 
bellum period. The youth of that time 
were trained largely in the individual 
home. One of the distinguishing- 
marks of the home of the rich slave- 
owner and planter was his magnificent 
library, on the shelves of which his 
sons might grow acquainted with the 
world's "illuminati." These men were 
usually able to send their sons to Eng- 
land to be further educated in the 
liberal arts and sciences. The common 
people of the South had to do the 
best they could; and this was exceed- 
ing little. There were no great univer- 
sities, except some old institutions of 
the William and Mary type — good to 
be sure, out few in number, and usually 
with small equipment and resources. 
There was only a poor system of public 
schools. Today there is a high school 
in every considerable town, in some of 
the States fostered by the aid of the 
State, an admirable system of public 
schools, agricultural high schools, 
training schools owned by individuals, 
but usually thorough and progressive, 
denominational small colleges, and the 
endowed and State universities. 

The dense gloom of ignorance is 
being dispelled, yet the South is behind 
other sections, and vast strides are to 



be made. It is mainly through the 
education of the masses that we must 
expect the future real development in 
all sections of our country alike. This 
is especially true of the South. It is to 
the great teaching force of the South 
that wc must look for the real leader- 
ship, and the right solution of all the 
problems — governmental, industrial, 
commercial — that about us throng. 
The real leadership is directing the 
mind of the Southern youth away from 
the past into present effort as a fit 
foundation for the still greater South 
of the future. 

The college and university leader 
recognizes that the prime purpose of 
the institution in which he works is not 
scholarship merely, but the develop- 
ment of the intellectual and spiritual 
life. His school life is a "process of 
preparation, not of information," to 
use some of the words of a writer. 
The idea is to teach the South- 
ern youth to contribute light and 
not heat to a discussion. The teachers 
must come out of the class-room into 
the real room of the life of the stu- 
dents, to be the leader he should be. 
Instruction and life, then, are to make 
the future leadership of the South — 
teachers who live and move and think 
and feel, who reveal to the student his 
kinship to divinity, and whose tender 
love draws and binds him to the 
Infinite. It is the school leadership 
that aims to produce as its graduates, 
men who "know a little of everything, 
and one thing well." 

The body of teachers in the South 
are perhaps freest of all from the old 
narrowness, and it is to this class most 
of all that we are to look for the "sav- 
ing grace" of the completion of the 
transformation of the masses whom 
they are training in their youth to take 
always the higher ground of impar- 
tiality and scientific historical research. 
Of this, witness as evidence the usage 
of the texts of Northern writers on 
United States history in the large 



464 



WATSON'S MAGAZINE. 



majority of Southern schools, not- 
withstanding there are text-books, and 
good ones, by Southern authors; and a 
spirit of appreciation of, and anxiety 
to participate in, the general uplift of 
the South along all lines. Some of the 
Southern States have gone so far as to 
pass compulsory education laAvs, and to 
forbid the labor of children between 
certain ages. The further aid from the 
State through its legislature is perliai)s 
the greatest need of the South today. 
In so many instances the legislatures 
are composed of men who are in a 
measure opposed to high taxation for 
the aid of schools, and the South is 
finding difl'iculty in getting the most 
satisfactory results for this reason. 
But the improvement is already won- 
derful; and a new day for educa- 
tion has even now dawned in the 
South. 



These are some of the phases of the 
extraordinarily rapidly upbuilding of 
the South, a partial characterization of 
some types of her leadersliip, the inter- 
nal being of her dominant note. She 
has many difficulties of her own, with- 
out the carping criticism of mistaken 
0]")inion. She has some problems 
which she can perhaps best solve alone. 
AVhat does she ask of the North? That 
the North deal with her in frankness 
and sincerity and patience, in the far- 
away discussion of her problems; more 
of the inkindling spirit of Yankee 
ingenuity; more capital from Northern 
coffers, with which to till her fields, 
drain her swamp lands, dig her mines, 
and develop her God-given resources of 
every kind; less criticism and more of 
the intimate, friend-making contact, 
that learning thus "to know each other 
better, we may love each other more." 




The Secret Instructions of the Jesuits 



Chapter VI. 



AdvertLseincnt to the Reader, 

(By the London Publisher, 1723.) 
Tlie following masterpiece of religious 
policy was published many years since, in 
Latin, Frencli. and Dutch. Mr. John Schip- 
per, a bookseller at Amsterdam, bought one 
of them at Antwerp, among other books, and 
afterwards reprinted it. Tlie Jesuits, being 
informed that he had purchased this book, 
demanded it back from him; but he liad 
then sent it to Holland. One of the society 
wlio lived at Amsterdam, hearing it said soon 
after to a Catholic bookseller, by name Van 
Eyk, that Schipper was printing a book 
■which concerned the Jesuits, replied that if 
it was only the Rules of the Society, he 
should not be under any concern, but desired 
he would inform liimself what it was. Being 
told by the bookseller that it was the -Secret 
lustriietioiis of the Soeiety, the good fatlicr, 
slirugging up his shoulders and knitting liis 
brow, said tliat he saw no remedy but deny- 
ing that this piece came from the 
society. The revert ned fatliers. however, 
thought it more advisable to purchase the 
whole edition, which they soon after did, 
some few copies excepted. From one of these 
it was afterwards reprinted, with this 
account prefi.xed, which is there said to be 
taken from two Roman Catholics, men of 
credit. 

I For the managing of this affair let 
. such members only be chosen as are 
advanced in age, of a lively com- 
plexion, and agreeable conversation. 
Let these frequently visit such widows, 
and the minute they begin to show any 
affection toward our order, then is the 
time to lay before them the good works 
and merits of the society. If they seem 
kindly to give ear to this, and begin to 
visit our churches, we must by all 
means take care to provide them with 
confessors, by whom they may be Avell 
admonished, especially to constant per- 
severance in their state of widowhood ; 
arid this by enumerating and praising 
the advantages and felicity of a single 
life; and let them pawn their faiths, 
and themselves too, as a security that a 
firm continuance in such a pious reso- 
lution will infallibly purchase an 
eternal merit and prove a most effect- 
ual means of escaping the otherwise 
certain pains of purgator.y. 

II. And let the same confessors per- 
suade them to engage in beautifying 
some chapel or oratory in their own 



houses, as a proper place for their 
daily meditations and devotions. By 
this means they will be more easily dis- 
engaged from the conversation and 
address of importunate suitors, and 
although they have a chaplain of their 
own, yet never let the confessors desist 
from celebrating mass, nor on all occa- 
sions giving them proper exhortations, 
and to be sure if possible to keep the 
chaplains under. 

III. Matters which relate to the 
man.agement of the house must be 
changed insensibly and with the great- 
est prudence, regard being had to per- 
son, place, affection, and devotion. 

IV. Care must be taken to remove 
such servants particularly as do not 
keep a good understanding with the 
society, but let this be done by little 
and little; and when we have managed 
to work them out let such be com- 
mended as already are, or willingly 
would become, our creatures. Thus 
shall v/e dive into every secret and 
have a finger in every affair transacted 
in the famih^ 

V. The confessor must manage his 
matters so that the widow must have 
such faith in him as not to do the least 
thing v/ithout his advice, and his only, 
which he may occasionally insinuate to 
be the only basis of her spiritual edifi- 
cation. 

VI. She must be advised to the fre- 
quent use and celebration of the sacra- 
ments, but especially that of penance, 
because in that she freely makes a dis- 
covery of her most secret thoughts and 
every temptation. In the next place, 
let her frequently communicate and 
apply for instnictions to her confessor, 
to the performance of which she must 
be invited by promises of some prayers 
adapted to her particular occasions, 
and lastly, let her every day rehearse 



466 



WATSON'S MAGAZINE. 



the litany and strictly examine her 
conscience. 

VII. It will be also a great help to 
the obtaining a perfect knowledge of 
all her inclinations, to prevail with her 
to repeat a general confession, although 
she has formerly made it to another. 

VIII. Discourses must be made to 
her concerning the advantages of the 
state of widowhood, the inconveniences 
of wedlock, especially when it is 
repeated, and the dangers to which 
mankind expose themselves by it, but 
above all such as more particularly 
affect her. 

IX. It will be proper every now and 
then cunningly to propose to her some 
match, but such a one, be sure, as you 
know she has an aversion to; and if it 
be thought that she has a kindness for 
anyone, let his vices and failings be 
represented to her in a proper light, 
that she may abhor the thoughts of 
altering her condition with any person 
whatsoever. 

X. AAlien, therefore, it is manifest 
that she is well disposed to continue a 
widow, it will then be time to recom- 
mend her a spiritual life, but not a 
recluse one, the inconveniences of 
which must be magnified to her, but 
such a one as Paula's or Eustochius's, 
etc., and let the confessor, having as 
soon as possible prevailed with her to 
make a vow of chastity, for two or 
three years at least, take due care to 
oppose all tendencies to a second mar- 
riage; and then all conversation with 
men and diversions even with her near 
relations and kinsfolk must be forbid 
her, under a f)retense of entering into 
a stricter union with God. As for the 
ecclesiastics who either visit the 
widow or receive visits from her, if 
the}' all can't be worked out, yet let 
none be admitted but what are either 
recommended b}' some of our society or 
are dependents upon them. 

XI. When we have thus far gained 
our jDoint the widow must be by little 
and little excited to the performance 



of good works, especially those of 
charity, which, however, she must by 
no means be suffered to do without the 
direction of her s])iritual father, since 
it is of the last importance to her soul 
that her talents be laid out with a 
prospect of obtaining spiritual interest, 
and since charity ill-applied often 
proves the cause and incitement to 
sins, which effaces the merit and 
rcAvard that might otherwise attend it. 

Chapter VII. 

I. They are perpetually to be pressed 
to a perseverance in their devotion and 
good works, in such manner that no 
week pass in which the}'^ do not, of 
their own accord, lay somewhat apart 
out of their abundance, for the honor 
of Christ, the blessed Virgin, or their 
l^atron saint; and let them dispose of 
it in relief of the poor, or in beautify- 
ing of churches, till they are entirely 
stripped of their superfluous stores and 
unnecessary riches. 

II. But if, besides their general acts 
of beneficence, they show a particular 
liberality to us, and continue in a 
course of such laudable works, let them 
be made partakers of all the merits of 
the society and favored with a special 
indulgence from the provincial, or even 
from the general, if their quality 
be such as may in some measure 
demand it. 

III. If they have made a vow of 
chastity, let them, according to our cus- 
tom, renew it twice a year; and let the 
day whereon this is done, be set apart 
for innocent recreations with the mem- 
bers of society. 

IV. Let them be frequently visited, 
and entertained in an agreeable man- 
ner, with spiritual stories; and also 
diverted with pleasant discourses, 
according to their particular humors 
and inclinations. 

V. They must not be treated with 
too much severity in confession, lest we 
make them morose and ill-tempered, 
unless their favor be so far engaged by 



SECRET INSTRUCTIONS OF THE JESUITS. 



467 



others that there is danger of not 
regaining it; and in this case, great 
discretion is to be nsed in forming a 
judgment of the natural inconstancj^ of 
■women. 

VI. Good management must be used 
to prevent their visiting the churches 
of others, or feeing their seats, but 
especially those of religious orders; for 
Avhich purpose let them hear it often 
repeated, that all the indulgences of 
other orders are with greater extent 
contained in ours. 

VII. If they propose to put on a 
weed, give them the liberty of such a 
becoming dress as has in it an air both 
religious and fashionable: that they 
may not think the}^ are altogether to 
be governed by their spiritual guide. 
Lastly, if there be no suspicion of their 
inconstancy, but the}'' are, on the con- 
trary, faithful anci liberal to our 
society, allow them in moderation, and 
without offense, whatever pleasures 
they have an inclination to. 

VIII. Let women that are young, 
and descended from rich and noble 
parents, be placed with those widows, 
that they may, by degrees, become sub- 
ject to our directions, and accustomed 
to our method of living. As a gov- 
erness to these, let some woman be 
cliosen and appointed by the family 
confessor; let these submit to all the 
censures, and other customs of the 
society: but such as will not conform 
themselves, immediately dismiss to 
their parents, or those who put them to 
us, and let them be represented as 
untractably stubborn, and of a perverse 
disposition. 

IX. Nor is less care to be taken of 
their health and recreations than of 
their salvation; wherefore if ever they 
complain of any indisposition, imme- 
diately all fasting, canvas, discipline, 
and other corporal penance must be 
forbidden; nor let them be permitted 
to stir abroad even to church, but be 
tended at home with privacy and care. 
If they secretly steal into the garden, 



or college, seem as if you knew it not, 
and allow them the liberty of conversa- 
tion and private diversions with those 
whose company is most agreeable to 
them. 

X. That the widow may dispose of 
what she has in favor of the society, 
set as a pattern to her, the perfect state 
of holy men, who having renounced the 
world, and forsaken their parents, and 
all that they had, with great resigna- 
tion and cheerfulness of mind devoted 
themselves to the service of God. For 
the better effecting of this, let what is 
contained in the constitution and stat- 
utes of the society relating to this kind 
of renunciation, and forsaking of all 
things, be explained to them, and let 
several instances of widows be brought, 
who thus in a short time became saints, 
in hopes of being canonized, if they 
continued such to the end. And let 
them be apprized that our society will 
not fail to use their interest at the 
court of Rome for the obtaining such 
a favor. 

XL Let this be deepl}^ imprinted on 
their minds, that, if they desire to 
enjoy perfect peace of conscience they 
must as well in matters temporal as 
spiritual, without the least murmuring, 
or inward reluctance, entirely follow 
the direction of their confessor, as one 
particularly allotted them by divine 
providence. 

XII. They must be also instructed 
upon every occasion that their bestow- 
ing of alms to ecclesiastics, and even to 
the religious of an approved and 
exemplary life, without the knowledge 
and approbation of their confessor, is 
not equallv meritorious in the sight of 
God. 

XIII. Let the confessors take dili- 
gent care to prevent such widows as are 
their penitents from visiting ecclesi- 
astics of other orders, or entering into 
familiarit}^ with them, under any pre- 
tense whatsoever; for which end let 
them, at proper opportunities, cry up 
the societ}' as infinitely superior to all 



468 



WATSON'S MAGAZINE. 



other orders; of the greatest service in 
the church of God, and of greater 
authority with the Pope, and all 
princes; and that 'tis the most j^erfect 
in itself, in that it discards all persons 
offensive or unqualified from its com- 
munit}', and therefore is purified from 
that scum and dregs with which the 
monks are infected, who, generally 
speaking, are a set of men unlearned, 
stupid, and slothful, negligent of their 
duty, and slaves to their bellies. 

XIV. Let the confessors propose to 
them, and endeavor to pers-uade them 
to pay small pensions and contribu- 
tions towards the yearl}^ support of 
colleges and professed houses, but 
especially of the professed house at 
Eome; nor let them forget the orna- 
ments of churches, wax-tapers, wine, 
etc., things necessary in the celebration 
of the sacrifice of the mass. 

XV. If any widow does not in her 
lifetime make over her whole estate to 
the society; whenever opportunity 
offers, but especially when she is 
seized with sickness, or in danger of 
life, let some take care to represent to 
her the poverty of the greatest number 
of our colleges, whereof many just 
erected have hardly as yet any founda- 
tion ; engage her, by a winning 
behavior and inducing arguments, to 
such a liberality, as (you must per- 
suade her) will lay a certain founda- 
tion for her eternal happmes. 

XVI. The same art must be used 
with princes and their benefactors; for 
they must be wrought up to a belief 
that these are the only acts which will 
perpetiuite their memories in this 
world, and secure them eternal glory in 
the next. But should any persons out 
of ill-will pretend to trump up the 
example of ou.r Savior, Avho had not 
whereon to lay his head, and from 
thence urge that the society of Jesus 
ought to distinguish themselves by 
their poverty; in answer to such insin- 
uations as these we must seriously 
inculcate on the minds of all that the 



state of the church, being altered from 
what it Avas, and now changed into a 
monarchy, it cannot maintain its 
ground against mighty enemies, unless 
supported by great authority and 
power, and that 'tis that little stone 
which was foretold by the prophet 
should be hewn out of the rock, and 
afterwards rise into a vast mountain. 

XVII. Those who are inclined to 
acts of charity, and the adorning of 
temples, should be frequently told that 
the height of perfection consists in 
withdrawing their affections from 
earthly things, thereby making Christ 
and his followers possessors of them. 

XVIII. But since our expectations 
must necessarily be less from widows 
that educate their children for the 
business world; we shall now proceed 
to lay down methods proper for pre- 
venting this inconvenience. 

CrrAPTER VIII. 

I. As it will behoove the widows to 
act with resolution, so must we proceed 
Avith the gentleness upon this occasion. 
Let the mothers be instructed to us© 
their children harshly, even from their 
cradles, by plying them with reproofs 
and frequent chastisements, etc. And 
when their daughters are near grown 
up to discretion let them then espec- 
ially be denied the common dress and 
ornaments of their sex; at all times 
offering up prayers to God that He 
would inspire them with a desire of 
entering into a religious order, and 
promising them very plentiful portions, 
on condition they would become nuns; 
let them hi}^ before them the many 
inconveniences attending everyone in a 
married state, and those in particular 
which they themselves have found by 
woful exjierience; often lamenting the 
great misfortune of their younger years 
in not having preferred a single life. 
And lastly, let them persist to use them 
in this manner, that their daughters 
may think of a religious state, being 



SECRET INSTRUCTIONS OF THE JESUITS. 



469 



tired by leading such a life with their 
mothers. 

II. Let our members converse famil- 
iarly with their sons, and if they seem 
fit for our turn, introduce them occa- 
sionally into the college, and let every- 
thing be shown with the best face, to 
invite them to enter themselves of the 
order; as the gardens, vineyards, 
countrj'-seats, and vills, where those of 
our society pass an agreeable life; let 
them be informed of our travels into 
several parts of the world, of our 
familiarity with princes, and whatever 
else ma}' be agreeable to youth; let 
them see the outward neatness of our 
refectories and chambers, the agreeable 
intercourse we have one with another, 
the easiness of our rules, which yet has 
the promise of the glory of God; and 
lastly, the preeminence of our order 
above all others, not forgetting, amidst 
our discourses of piety, to entertain 
them also with pleasant and diverting 
stories. 

III. Let us now and then (as if by 
divine inspiration) exhort them to 
religion in general; and then artfully 
insinuate the perfection and conven- 
iencies of our institution above others; 
and take care to set in a true light, 
both in public exhortations and private 
discourses, how heinous a crime it is to 
resist the immediate call of God; and 
lasth'^, let them be soothed to the per- 
formance of spiritual exercises, to 
determine them in the choice of such a 
state of life. 

IV. We must also take care to pro- 
vide for these youths tutors that are 
firmly attached to our interests, who 
must keep a strict eye over them, and 
continually exhort them to such a 
course of life; but should they seem 
reluctant abridge them of some of their 
former liberties, that by such restraint 
they may become conformable. Let 
their mothers set forth the difficulties 
which the family labor under; and if, 
after all, they cannot be brought of 
their own accord to desire admission 



into the order, under the notion of 
keeping them closer to their studies, 
and from their mothers let them 
receive little countenance, but let our 
members make use of the most alluring 
behavior, that their affections may be 
brought over to us. 

Chapter IX. 

I. Never admit any person, if it can 
well be prevented, to his last degree so 
long as he shall have an expectation of 
any estate falling to him, unless he has 
a brother in the society who is younger 
than himself, or some other important 
reasons require it; but above all things 
and in every action increase the of the 
society must be regarded, for ends 
known to the superiors, who in this 
point no doubt agree that for the 
greater displaying of God's glory the 
church should be restored to its ancient 
splendor, b}^ the perfect harmony of all 
its clergy. "Wlierefore let it frequently 
in every place be published that the 
society consists partly of professors so 
very poor that, excepting the daily 
alms of the faithful, they are entirely 
destitute of the common necessaries of 
life, and partl}^ of others poor, indeed, 
but possessed of some little matters by 
help wdiereof they subsist, being 
neither for their studies nor the duties 
they perform an incumbrance to the 
people, as other mendicants are. There- 
fore let confessors of princes and noble- 
men, widows, and others (from whom 
our expectations may reasonably be 
large) with great seriousness inculcate 
this notion, that while we administer to 
them in spiritual things they at least 
should in return contribute to us of 
their earthlj^ and temporal, and let no 
opportunity be slipped of receiving 
from them whatever is offered ; and if 
anything be promised and the per- 
formance delayed take care to remind 
them thereof with prudence and in 
such manner as to best conceal our love 
of riches. But should any confessors, 
either of noblemen or others, seem the 



470 



WATSON'S MAGAZINE. 



least negligent to pnt in practice these 
rules, let him at a proper opportunity 
be removed, and put another more fit 
in his room ; and should it be necessary 
for the greater satisfaction of the peni- 
tents, let him be sent to one of the most 
distant colleges, saying that a person 
of his ability would be there of much 
greater service to the society. For we 
have lately been informed that several 
young widows, being snatched away by 
sudden death, did not bequeath to us 
their valuable effects, through the neg- 
ligence of some members who did not 
take care to accept of them in due time, 
for in getting these things regard is 
not to be had to the time, but the good 
inclination of the penitent. 

II. Let various wiles be used to draw 
prelates, canons, pastors, and other rich 
ecclesiastics to the exercise of spiritual 
acts, that through their affection for 
holy things we may gradually gain 
them to the society, and by that means 
promise ourselves to be in some meas- 
ure i:>artakers of their liberality, 

III. Confessors must remember to 
sift out of their penitents at proper 
opportunities what family, relations, 
parents, friends, and effects they have; 
then learn their reversion, state, inten- 
tion, and resolution, which the}^ must 
endeavor to mold in favor of the 
society, if it be not so already. If at 
first trial we have prospect of advan- 
tage (it being improper to pr}^ into all 
things at once) let the same confessor, 
under pretense of better clearing their 
conscience or doing some soul-saving 
penance, strictly enjoin them to make 
weekly confessions, and gravely and 
with a seeming honest intention invite 
them to it, that he may have the better 
opportunity to propose the question at 
several times which he could not so 
conveniently offer at once. The matter 
succeeding according to his wish, if it 
be a female penitent let all ways be 
tried to induce her to persist in fre- 
quent confessions and constant attend- 
ance on the services of the church; if a 



male, to frequent the company of 
the memljers of our society, and to 
endeavor to enter into a familiarity 
Avith them. 

IV. Wliat has been said in relation 
to widows must be made use of towards 
merchants, rich citizens, and married 
people who are childless, whose entire 
estates the society may often acquire 
provided these rules be prudently put 
in practice; but chiefly they must be 
observed with respect to rich female 
devotees, who often converse with our 
members, upon whose account the com- 
mon people can but grumble at most, 
unless they happen to be descended 
from very noble families. 

V. Let the rectors of colleges 
endeavor to procure thorough informa- 
tion of the houses, gardens, farms, vine- 
yards, villages, and other effects, 
belonging to the prime nobility, mer- 
chants, and citizens, and, if possible, of 
the taxes and rents with which they are 
encumbered, but this may be done with 
caution, and most effectually at confes- 
sions, in familiar conversation, and 
priA'ate discourses. "\ATienever a con- 
fessor has got a rich penitent let him 
immediately inform the rector, and try 
all ways of making himself agreeable. 

VI. But the whole success of our 
affairs turns chiefly on this point, viz., 
that all our members, by studying a 
compliance with everyone's humor, 
work themselves into the good graces 
of their penitents and others thej'- con- 
verse with; to which end, where places 
are inhabited by the rich and noble, 
there let the provincials take care to 
send a considerable number, and that 
they may perform this with more pru- 
dence and success, let the rectors not 
omit giving them instructions, as occa- 
sion requires, what a plentiful harvest 
is like to crown their endeavors. 

VII. Let inquiry be made whether 
by taking their children into the order, 
their contracts and possessions may 
fall to the societj^, and if so, whether, 
should they enter into an agreement 



SECRET INSTRUCTIONS OF THE JESUITS. 



471 



with us, any part of their effects could 
be made over to the college in such a 
manner that it may after a limited time 
revert unto us; and for the better suc- 
cess in this alfair, let the necessities of 
the society and the load of debts they 
labor under be particularly represented 
to the nobility and those that are rich, 

VIII. If it happen that the widows 
and rich married people who are our 
friends have daughters only, let these 
be persuaded by our members to make 
choice of a religious life, that, a small 
fortune being left to them, the society 
may by degrees get the rest into their 
possession; and if they have sons who 
are fit for our turn let them be allured 
to us, and the others be enticed, by the 
promise of small rewards, to enter 
themselves of different orders. But 
should there be an only son let no 
means be omitted for the bringing him 
over to the society and freeing him 
from all fear of his parents. Let him 
be persuaded it is a call from above 
and shown how acceptable a sacrifice it 
would be to God, should he desert his 
parents without their knowledge or 
consent ; if this be effected let him enter 
his novitiate in a remote college, hav- 
ing first given information to the gen- 
eral. But if ihej happen to have both 
sons and daughters, let the daughters 
be first disposed of in a nunnery, and 
afterwards let the sons be drawn into 
the society when the}^ are got into pos- 
session of their sisters' effects. 

IX. Let superiors earnestly, but 
with mildness, advise the confessors of 
such widows and married people to 
apply themselves industriously to the 
service of the societj'', according to the 
instructions before laid down; but if^ 
they will not act conformable thereto, 
let others be substituted in their places 
and they removed a good way off, to 
prevent them from keeping up the 
least correspondence with any of the 
familj'. 

X. Let the widows or other devotees 
who seem with fervency to aspire at 



spiritual perfection be brought to give 
up all they have to the society, and be 
contented to live upon such allowance 
as we from time to time shall think 
they have occasion for, that, by easing 
their minds of the cares and anxieties 
of wordly affairs, they may be more at 
libertjT^ for the service of God. 

XI. The better to convince the world 
of the society's poverty, let the supe- 
riors borrow money on bond of some 
rich persons who are our friends, and 
when it is due defer the payment 
thereof. Afterwards let the person 
who lent the money (especially in time 
of dangerous sickness) be constantly 
visited and by all methods wrought 
upon to deliver up the bond. By this 
means we shall not be mentioned in the 
deceased's will and j'et gain hand- 
somely without incurring the ill-will of 
their heirs. 

XIL It will also be proper to bor- 
row money of some at a yearly interest 
and dispose of it to others at a higher 
rate, that the income on one hand may 
more than answer the outgo on the 
other. For in the meantime it may 
happen that our friends to whom we 
are indebted, compassionating the 
necessities of the society, when they 
find us engaged in erecting of colleges 
or building of churches, may by will or 
donation in their lifetimes forgive us 
the interest, and ma}'^ be the principal. 

XIII. The society may also advan- 
tageously traft'ic under the borrowed 
names of some rich merchants, our 
friends, but never without a prospect 
of certain and abundant gain; and this 
may be done even to the Indies, which 
hitherto, by the bountiful favor of 
God, have furnished us not only with 
souls, but also plenteously supplied our 
coffers with wealth. 

XIV. In whatever places our mem- 
bers reside let them never omit to pro- 
vide a physician who is firm to the 
interests of the society. Him let them 
recommend to the sick, and prefer 
before all others, that he, in return, by 



472 



WATSON'S MAGAZINE. 



extolling our society above all other 
religious orders, may occasion us to be 
called to all persons of distinction 
when afflicted with sickness, but chiefly 
to such as are past hope of recovery. 

XV. Let the confessors be constant 
in visiting the sick, but especially such 
as are thought to be in danger; and 
that the ecclesiastics and members of 
other orders may be discarded with a 
good pretense, let the superiors take 
care that when the confessor is obliged 
to Avithdraw others may immediately 
succeed, and keep up the sick person in 
his good resolutions. At this time it 
may be advisable to move him by 
apprehensions of hell, etc., or at least 
of purgatory, and tell him that as fire 
is quenched by water so sin is extin- 
guished by acts of charity, and that 
alms can never be better bestoAved than 
for the nourishment and support of 
such who by their calling profess a 



desire to promote the salvation of their 
neighbor. Thus will the sick become 
partakers of our merit, and by it atone 
for the sins they have committed, for 
charity covers a multitude of sins. 
This virtue may be also represented to 
them as that wedding garment w^ithout 
which no one is admitted to the heav- 
enly feast. Next let some passages be 
quoted out of the sacred writ and holy 
fathers which (regard being had to the 
sick person's capacity) shall be judged 
most proper for persuading him to a 
compliance. 

XVI. Lastly, let the women who 
complain of the vices or ill-humor of 
their husbands be instructed secretly to 
withdraw a sum of money, that by 
making an offering thereof to God they 
may expiate the crimes of their sinful 
helpmates and secure a pardon for 
them. 




Commodore John Barry to Have a Monu= 
ment, Founded on False Claim 



THE Congress of the United States 
has api^ropriated $35,000 to 
erect a monument to Commo- 
dore John Barry. It is claimed for 
him that he was the "Father of the 
American Navy, the first to fly its fla<? 
upon the high seas and the first to 
whom an enemy struck his coh)rs." 

Neither of these claims is well 
founded. Each of them is untenable. 

In the Eeport of the American His- 
torical Association for 1805, there is a 
highlj'- eulogistic sketch of Commodore 
Barry, the author being Martin I. J. 
Griif'in. 

He refei's to the fact that in the 
earlier editions of Cooper's History of 
the American Navy, Commodore 
Barry was named as the first to dis- 
play, at sea, the old flag of thirteen 
stripes. 

In 1853 Cooper himself, in examin- 
ing Barry's papers discovered that the 
Commodore had not sailed until after 
the Connnander-in-Chief, Ezekiel 
Hopkins, had done so, on Feb. 17, 
1776. 

Barry himsef did not put to sea 
before April. 

Therefore it was Hopkins, of Ehode 
Island, who should have been named 
as the first to fly the old Continental 
flag upon the ocean. 

He captured several of the forts on 
the Bahamas, and two British ships otF 
Block Island. Later, he was dismissed 
from the service because of his failure 
to meet certain charges brought 
against him — inactivity being one of 
them. 

jNIr. Griffin quotes from a letter 
written, in 1813, by John Adams to 
El bridge Gerry: 

'•Philadelphia is now boasting that 
Paul Jones has asserted in his journal 



that his hand hoisted the first Ameri- 
can flag, and Captain Barry has 
asserted that the first British flag was 
struck to him. 

Now, I assert that the first Ameri- 
ca'n flag was hoisted by Capt. John 
Manley, and the first British flag was 
struck to him." 

Adams wrote to John Langdon for 
his testimony on the subject, and Lang- 
don replied that ^Hhe pretensions of 
Jones and Barry are both unfounded.'''' 

Under orders of General Washing- 
ton, Captain Manley, hoisted the 
pine-tree flag over the Lee and cap- 
tured the British vessels Naney, Jenmy 
and Hannah. This was in November 
and December, 1775. 

In December, 1775, John Paul Jones 
hoisted the rattle-snake flag., with its 
motto, "Don't tread on me." 

There was no American flag until 
Jan. 1, 1776, when General Washing- 
ton raised the old Continental flag. 
This was superseded by our present 
flag in June, 1777. 

Therefore, no question ean arise as 
to who first flew the Stars and Stripes. 
We had several armies in the field, 
and several squadrons at sea, all of 
which simultaneously replaced the old 
colors with the new. 

But under the flag which George 
Washington unfurled at Cambridge, it 
was the Protestant, Hopkins, and not 
the Catholic, Barry who was first to 
enter "the ocean lists." 

It was the heroic John Manley, 
another Protestant, who first captured 
the enemy's vessels, under an Ameri- 
can flag. 

It was another Protestant, John 
Paul Jones, who was the next in order 
as the captor of British ships, 

C ommodore Barry comes third. 



474 



WATSON'S MAGAZINE. 



It is an outrage upon - historical heroes and set up a Romanist in their 

integrity and upon American patriot- place. 

ism that the powerful Roman Catholic It is a shame that a Protestant Con- 
organizations of the present day gress should become a party to such 
should pull down the two Protestant a crime. 



THe Principles of Populism Are Triumphant 
TKroughout the Land 



OFFICIAL announcement is made 
from Washington, that on Jan- 
uary first, 1018. a Parcels Post 
system will be established throughout 
the United States, 

Thus, all of the original Populist 
demands with one exception, has 
either been adopted by the Federal 
Government or endorsed by both the 
great political parties. 

The one exception is the money 
plank which demanded that the Gov- 
ernment resume its sovereign power to 
create money — a function of govern- 
ment which Mr. Lincoln most unwisely 
surrendered to the National Bankers 
during the Civil War. 

Even that plan of our old platform 
has been adopted by ex-President 
Roosevelt's new party, and it will 
undoubtedly draw to his support tens 
of thousands of old Greenbackers, 
Populists and Free Silverites. 

AVhen we read the Declaration of 
Principles which the Farmers' Alli- 
ance put forth at Ocala, Florida, in 
1890, and then consider how mightily 
those principles have wrought upon 
the State and Federal governments, 
we cannot withhold from them a trib- 
ute of the highest character; they were 
patriots, they were reformers, they 
were statesmen — but they were twenty 
jears ahead of their time, and they 
had to pay the penalty for it. 

I rejoice that so many of those who 
went through the storm of proscrip- 
tion and persecution, have lived to see 



their principles dominate the political 
world of America. 

.Vs a comrade in every one of those 
hard fights, I rejoice with them; I am 
proud to have been the leader of those 
faithful soldiers of the good cause, 
for nearly a quarter of a century. 
Tiiej^, at least, will believe me when I 
say that there never was a moment 
when I doubted the final triumph ot 
those principles. 

AVliat saddens me is, that so many 
of the civic soldiers who fought those 
battles with us, died while the clouds 
hung low, and the wind was in the 
East. 

Without further preface I will lay 
before you, those successive platforms 
on which we made our fights. 

The Ocala Platform of the Fanners^ 
Alliance. — AVe demand the abolition 
of National Banks. 

We demand that the Government 
shall establish Sub-Treasuries or 
Depositories in the several States, 
which shall loan money direct to the 
people at a low rate of interest not to 
exceed two per cent, per annum, on 
non-perishable farm products, and also 
upon real estate, with proper limita- 
tions upon the quantity of land and 
amount of mone}'. 

We demand that the amount of 
the circulating medium be speedily 
increased to not less than $50 per 
capita. 

We demand that Congress shall pass 



THE PRINCIPLES OF POPULISM. 



475 



such laAYs as will effectually prevent 
the dealins^ in futures of all agricul- 
tural and mechanical productions; 
providing- a stringent system of pro- 
cedure in trials that will secure the 
prompt conviction, and imposing such 
penalties as shall secure the most per- 
fect compliance with the law. 

"We condemn the Silver Bill recently 
passed b}^ Congress, and demand in 
lieu thereof the free and unlimited 
coinage of Silver. 

We demand the passage of laws pro- 
hibiting alien ownership of land, and 
that Congress take prom]:)t action to 
devise some plan to obtain all lands 
now owned by aliens and foreign syn- 
dicates; and that all lanris now held by 
Railroads and other Corporations in 
excess of such as is actually used and 
needed by them be reclaimed by the 
Government, and held for actual set- 
tlers only. 

Believing in the doctrine of equal 
rights to all and special privileges to 
none, we demand — 

a. That our National Legislation 
shall be so framed in the future as not 
to build up one industry at the expense 
of another. 

b. We further demand a removal of 
the existing heavy Tariff Tax from 
the necessities of life, that the poor of 
our land must have. 

c. We further demand a just and 
equitable system of graduated tax on 
Incomes. 

d. We believe that the money of the 
country should be kept as much as pos- 
sible in the hands of the people, and 
hence we demand that all National and 
State revenue shall be hmited -to the 
necessary expenses of the Government 
economically and honestly adminis- 
tered. 

We demand the most rigid, honest 
and just State and National Govern- 
ment control and supervision of the 
means of public communication and 
transportation, and if this control and 



supervision does not remove the abuses 
now existing, we demand the Govern- 
ment ownership of such means of com- 
munication and transportation. 

We demand that the Congress of the 
United States submit an amendment to 
the Constitution providing for the 
election of United States Senators by 
direct vote of the people of each State. 

Platform of the People's Party of 
the United States of America^ Adopted 
at Cincinnati, O., May 20, 1892.— 1. 
That in view of the great social, indus- 
trial and economical revolution now 
dawning upon the civilized world, and 
the new and living issues confronting 
the American people, we believe that 
the time has arrived for a crystalliza- 
tion of the political reform forces of 
our country and the formation of what 
should be knoAvn as the People's Party 
of the United States of America. 

2. That we most heartily endorse the 
demands of the platforms as adopted 
at St. Louis, Mo., in 1889, Ocala, Fla., 
in 1890, and Omaha, Neb., in 1891, by 
the industrial organizations there rep- 
resented, summarized as follows: 

a. The right to make and issue 
money is a sovereign power, to be 
maintained by the people for the com- 
mon l^enefit, hence we demand the 
abolition of National Banks, as Banks 
of issue, and as a substitute for 
Natonal Bank Notes we demand that 
the Legal Tender Treasury Notes be 
issued in sufficient volume to transact 
the business of the country on a cash 
basis, without damage or special 
advantage to any class or calling, such 
notes to be Legal Tender in payment 
of all debts, public and private, and 
such notes, when demanded by the peo- 
ple, shall be loaned to them at not 
more than two per cent, per annum 
upon non-perishable products as indi- 
cated in the Sub-Treasury plan, and 
also upon real estate, with proper limi- 
tation upon the quantity of land and 
amount of mone3\ 



476 



WATSON'S MAGAZINE. 



b. We demand the free and unlim- 
ited coinage of Silver. 

c. We demand the passage of laws 
prohibiting alien ownership of land, 
and that Congress take prompt action 
to devise some plan to obtain all lands 
now owned by aliens and foreign syn- 
dicates, and that all land held by Rail- 
roads and other Corporations in 
excess of such as is actually used and 
needed by them be reclaimed by the 
Government and hold for actual set- 
tlers only. 

d. Believing in the doctrine of equal 
rights to all and special i)rivi leges to 
none, Ave demand that taxation — 
National, State or Municipal — shall 
not be used to build up one interest or 
class at the expense of another. 

e. We demand that all revenues — 
National, State or County — shall be 
limited to the necessary expense of the 
Government economically and honestly 
administered. 

f. We demand a just and equitable 
sj'stem of graduated tax on Incomes. 

g. We demand the most rigid, hon- 
est and just National control and 
supervision of the means of public 
conununication and transportation, and 
if this control and supervision does not 
remove the abuses now existing, we 
demand the Government ownership of 
such means of communication and 
transportation. 

h. We demand the election of Presi- 
dent, Vice-President and United States 
Senators by a direct vote of the people. 

Declaration of Industrial Independ- 
ence — Platform adopted hy the St. 
Louis Conference^ Fehriiary 22-26, 
1802. — This, the first great Labor Con- 
ference of the United States and of the 
Avorld, representing all divisions of 
urban and rural organized industry, 
assembled in National Congress, invok- 
ing upon its action the blessing and 
protection of Almighty God, puts 
forth to and for the producers of the 
Nation this Declaration of Union and 
Independence, 



The conditions which surround us 
best justify our co-operaton. We meet 
in the midst of a Nation brought to 
the verge of moral, political and 
material ruin. Corruption dominates 
the ballot box, the Legislatures, the 
Congress, and touches even the ermine 
of the bench. The people are demoral- 
ized. Many of the States have been 
compelled to isolate the voters at the 
polling-places in order to prevent uni- 
versal intimidation or bribery- The 
newspajjcrs are subsidized or muzzled, 
public opinion silenced, business pros- 
trated, our homes covered with mort- 
gages, labor impoverished, and the 
land concentrating in the hands of 
capitalists. The urban workmen are 
denied the right of organization for 
self-protection; imported pauperized 
labor beats down their wages; a hire- 
ling standing army, unrecognized by 
our laws, is established to shoot them 
down, and they are rapidly degenerat- 
ing into European conditions. 

The fruits of the toil of millions are 
boldly stolen to build up colossal for- 
tunes unprecedented in the history of 
mankind, and the possessors of these in 
turn despise the Republic and endan- 
ger libert5^ From the same prolific 
womb of governmental injustice we 
breed the two gi'eat classes — paupers 
and millionaires. The national power 
to create money is appropriated to 
enrich Bondholders; Silver, which has 
been accepted as coin since the dawn 
of history, has been demonetized to 
add to the purchasing power of Gold 
by decreasing the value of all forms 
of property as well as human labor, 
and the supply of Currency is pur- 
posely ■ abridged to fatten usurers, 
bankrupt enterprises and enslave 
industiy. A vast conspiracy against 
mankind has been organized on two 
continents and is rapidly taking pos- 
session of the world. If not met and 
overthrown at once it forbodes ter- 
rible social convulsions, the destruction 
of civilization or the establishment of 
an absolute despotism. 



THE PRINCIPLES OF POPULISM. 



477 



In this crisis of human affairs the 
intelligent working people and pro- 
ducers of the United States have come 
togetlier in the name of peace, order 
and society to defend liberty, property 
and justice. 

We declare our union and independ- 
ence. We assert our purpose to vote 
with that political organization which 
represents our principles. 

We charge that the controlling 
influences dominating the old political 
parties have allowed the existing 
dreadful conditions to develop without 
serious effort to restrain or prevent 
them. Neither do they now intend to 
accomplish reform. They have agreed 
together to ignore, in the coming cam- 
paign, every issue but one. They pro- 
pose to droM'n the outcries of a plun- 
dered people Avith the uproar of a 
sham battle over the Tariff, so that 
Capitalists, Corporations, National 
Banks, Rings, Trusts, "Watered 
Stocks," the demoralization of Silver 
and the oppressions of usurers may be 
lost sight of. 

They i^ropose to sacrifice our homes, 
lives and children upon the altar of 
Mammon, to destroy the hopes of the 
multitude in order to secure corrup- 
tion funds from the great lords of 
plunder. 

We assert that a political organiza- 
tion, representing the principles herein 
stated, is necessary to redress the 
grievances of which we complain. 

Assembled on the anniversary of the 
birth of the illustrious man wdio led 
the first great revolt on this continent 
against oppression, Ave seek to restore 
the Government of the Republic to the 
hands of the "plain people" Avith 
whom it originated. Our doors are 
open to all points of the compass. AVe 
ask all honest men to join Avith and 
help us. 

In order to restrain the extortions of 
aggregated capital, to driA'e the money 
changers out of the temple, "to form a 
rnore perfect union, establish justice, 



nisure domestic tranquility, provide 
for the common defense, promote the 
general Avelfare, and secure the bless- 
ings of liberty for ournelves and our 
posterity," Ave do ordain and establish 
the following platform of principles: 

1. We declare the union of the labor 
forces of the United States, this day 
accomplished, permanent and perpet- 
ual. May its spirit enter into all 
hearts for the salvation of the Repub- 
lic and the uplifting of mankind. 

2. Wealth Ijelongs to him Avho cre- 
ates it. Every dollar taken from 
industry without an equivalent is rob- 
bery. "If any will not work neither 
shall he eat." The interests of rural 
and urban labor are the same; their 
enemies are identical. 

Platform. — Finance — a. We demand 
a National Currency, safe, sound and 
flexible, issued by the general Govern- 
ment only, a full Legal Tender for all 
debts, public and private; and that 
without the use of banking corpora- 
tions a just, equitable and efficient 
means of distribution direct to the 
people shall be established, at a tax 
not to exceed tAvo per cent, as set forth 
in the Sub-Treasury plan of the 
Farmers' Alliance, or some better sj^s- 
tem. Also by payments in discharge 
of its obligations for public improA-e- 
ments. 

b. We demand free and unlimited 
coinage of Sih'er. 

c. We demand that the amount of 
circulating medium be speedily 
increased to not less than $50 per 
capita. 

d. We demand a graduated income 
tax. 

e. We believe that the money of the 
countr}^ should bo kept as much as 
possible in the hands of the people, 
and hence we demand that all National 
and State rcA^enues shall be limited to 
the necessary expenses of the Gov- 
ernment, economically and honestly 
administered. 

f. We demand that Postal Savings 



478 



AVATSON'S MAGAZINE. 



banks be established by the Govern- 
ment for the safe deposit of the earn- 
ings of the people and to facilitate 
exchange. 

Land. 

The land, including nil the natural 
sources of Avealth, is the heritage of 
all the people and should not be 
mono]Dolized for speculative purposes, 
and alien ownership of land should be 
jiroliibited. All lands now held by 
Railroads and other corporations in 
excess of their actual needs, and all 
land now owned by aliens, should be 
reclaimed by the Government and 
held for actual settlers only. 

TRAXSrORTATIOX. 

a. Transportation being a means of 
exchange and a public necessity, the 
Government shoidd own and operate 
the Railroads in tlie interest of the 
peoi)le. 

b. The telegraph and telephone, like 
the Post-Ort'ice S3'stem, being a neces- 
sity for the transmission of news, 
should be owned and operated by the 
Government in the interest of the 
people. 

Populists, 1004. 

The Poj)ulist National Convention 
met at Springfield, 111., on July 4. L. 
II. Wcller, of Iowa, Avas elected tem- 
porary Chairman, and J. M. Mallete, 
of Texas, permanent Chairman. On 
July 5, Thos. E. Watson, of Georgia, 
was nominated for President on the 
first ballot. The vote stood 334 for 
Watson, 319 for William V. Allen, of 
Nebraska, and 45 for Frank H. Wil- 
liams, of Illinois. After some changes 
to Watson he was declared the unani- 
mous choice of the Convention. T. B. 
Tibbies, of Nebraska, was nominated 
for Vice-President. He received on 
the first ballot 453 votes, to 74 1-2 for 
George F. Burnham, of Massachusetts, 
and 53 1-2 for Theodore B. Rynder, of 
Pennsylvania. 



The Platform. 

The platform, adopted on July 5, 
was as follows: 

The People's Party affirms its 
adherence to the basic truths of the 
Omaha platform of 1892, and of the 
subsequent platforms of 1896 and 1900. 
In session in its fourth National Con- 
vention on July 4, 1904-, in the city of 
Si)ring-field, 111., it draws inspiration 
from the day that saw the birth of the 
nation as well as its own birth as a 
party, and also from the soul of him 
who lived at its present place of meet- 
ing. We renew our allegiance to the 
old fashioned American spirit that 
gave this nation existence and made it 
distinctive among the people of the 
earth. We again sound the keynote of 
the Declaration of Independence that 
all men are created equal in a political 
sense, which was the sense in which 
that instrument, being a political 
document, intended that the utter- 
ances should be understood. We assert 
that the departure from this funda- 
mental truth is responsible for the ills 
from which we suffer as a nation, that 
the giving of special privileges to the 
few has enabled them to dominate the 
mauA'^, thereby tending to destroy the 
political equality which is the corner- 
stone of Democratic government. 

3/ilitarism. — We call for a return to 
the truths of the fathers, and we vigor- 
ously protest against the spirit of 
Mammonism and of thinly veiled mon- 
archy that is invading certain sections 
of our national life, and of the very 
administration itself. This is a nation 
of peace, and we deplore the appeal to 
the spirit of force and militarism 
which is shown in ill advised and vain- 
glorious boasting and in more harm- 
ful ways in the denial of the rights of 
man under martial law. 

Tronsjiortation Monopoly. — A politi- 
cal democracy and an industrial des- 
potism cannot exist side by sivde; and 
nowhere is this truth more plainly 



THE PRINCIPLES OF POPULISM. 



479 



shown than in the g-igantic transporta- 
tion monopolies which have bred all 
sorts of kindred trusts, subverting the 
governments of many of the States, 
and established their official agents in 
the National Government. We submit 
that it is better for the Government to 
own the railroads than for the rail- 
roads to own the Government, and 
that one of the other alternative seems 
inevitable. 

AVe call attention of our fellow^ citi- 
zens to the fact that the surrender of 
both of the old parties in corporative 
influences leaves the People's Party 
the only party of reform in the nation. 

Therefore we submit the following 
platform of principles to the American 
people : 

Money and Banks.— T\\^ issuing of 
money is a function of government, 
and should never be delegated to cor- 
porations or individuals. The Consti- 
tution gives to Congress alone power 
to issue money and regulate its value. 

"We therefore demand that all money 
shall be issued by the Government in 
such quantity as shall maintain a sta- 
bility in prices, every dollar to be full 
legal tender, none of which shall be a 
debt redeemable in other money. 

We demand that postal savings 
banks be established by -the Govern- 
ment for the safe deposit of the sav- 
ings of the people. 

Labor Questions. — We believe in the 
right of labor to organize for the 
benefit and protection of those who 
toil ; and pledge the efforts of the Peo- 
ple's Party to preserve this right 
inviolate. Capital is organized and 
has no right to deny to labor the privi- 
lege which it claims for itself. We 
feel that intelligent organization of 
labor is essential; that it raises the 
standard of workmanship, promotes 
the efficiency, intelligence, independ- 
ence and character of the wage earner. 
We believe with Abraham Lincoln that 
labor is prior to capital, and is not its 
slave, but its companion, and we plead 



for that broad spirit of toleration and 
justice which will promote industrial 
peace through the observance of the 
principles of voluntary arbitration. 

We favor the enactment of legisla- 
tion looking to the improvement oi 
conditions for wage earners, the aboli- 
tion of child labor, the suppression of 
sweat shops and of convict labor in 
competiton with free labor, and the 
exclusion from American shores of 
foreign pauper labor. 

We favor the shorter workday, and 
declare that if eight hours constitutes 
a day's labor in Government service, 
eight hours should constitute a day's 
labor in factories, workshops and 
mines. 

Initiative and Referendum. — As a 
means of placing all public questions 
directly under the control of the peo- 
ple, we demand that legal provision 
be made under which the people may 
exercise the initiative, referendum and 
proportional representation and direct 
vote for all public officers with the 
right of recall. 

Land, including all the natural 
sources of wealth, is a heritage of all 
the people, and should not be monopo- 
lized for sj^eculative purposes, and 
alien ownership of land should be pro- 
hibited. 

We demand a return to the original 
interpretation of the Constitution and 
a fair and impartial enforcement of 
laws under it, and denounce govern- 
ment by injunction and imprisonment 
without the right of trial by jury. 

Governm-cnt Ownership. — To pre- 
vent unjust discrimination and monop- 
oly the GoA'ernment should own and 
control the railroads and those public 
utilities which in their nature are 
monopolies. To perfect the postal 
service, the Government should own 
and operate the general telegraph and 
telejihone systems and provide a par- 
cels post. 

As to those trusts and monopolies 
which are not public utilities or nat- 



480 



WATSON'S MAGAZINE. 



ural monopolies, we demand that those 
special privileges which they now 
enjoy, and whicli alone enable them to 
exist, should be immediately with- 
drawn. Corporations, being the crea- 
tures of government, should be sub- 
jected to such governmental regula- 
tions and control as will adequately 
protect the public. We demand the 



taxation of monopoly privileges, while 
they remain in private hands, to the 
extent of the value of the privileges 
granted. 

"We demand that Congress shall 
enact a general law unifoi-mly regulat- 
ing the power and duties of all incor- 
porated companies doing inter-state 
business. 



Open Letters to Cardinal Gibbons 

No. 6 



Your Eminence, 

YOU once wrote a book. 
You named it, grandiosly, 
"The Faith of Our Fathers."" 

Whose fathers? 

If yoi/r father had been a virgin, as 
3^ou pretend that you have always been, 
3^ou would never have come into the 
world. 

Think of what the world would have 
lost, had T/our father been as much of a 
virgin as you are ! 

Think of what you and the world 
gained, by your having had a father 
who married and begot children ! 

Your father set you a good example, 
and 3'OU did not follow it. Is this any 
reflection upon one of "our fathers?" 

Cardinal, please excuse me for using 
plain language — but your book is as 
full of lies as an egg is of meat. 

In fact, j^our book is a howling 
wilderness of lies. 

If, as you claim, you have sold 5)00,- 
000 copies of this book, you have sown 
a larger crop of deliberate falsehoods 
than any man now living. 

Can I prove you to be a deliberate 
liar? 

Watch me do it: 

In trying to edge off from the nat- 
ural inference to be drawn from the 
Biblical statement that Jesus was the 



first born son of Mary, you state that 
the same epithet of ^7'st born was 
applied in the Old Testament "to 
Machir, for instance, icho was the only 
son of Manassesy 

(Tage IGG, 73rd edition "Faith of 
Our Fathers, By James Cardinal 
Gibbons.") 

Of course, your object in trying to 
evade the real meaning of the term 
^" first born," is to prove that Mary 
never gave birth to an}' son after 
Jesus. 

Her "perpetual virginity" is neces- 
sary to the un-Biblical worship of 
MaVy. 

If she had other sons, after her first 
born son, even Rome could not per- 
suade sane people to worship her as 
the Perpetual, Immaculate Virgin. 

Therefore, those sons and daughters 
of hers must be assigned to "another 
Mary." 

Although wedded, after she knew she 
was with child, she must ever after- 
wards, remain a Virgin. 

Poor Joseph ! 

He was sorely chagrined to find that 
his bride was in the family way; and, 
strange to say, Mary did not explain 
how her condition came to pass. 

In a dream, the aggrieved young 
husband is pacified ; and then he is told 



OPEN LETTER TO CARDINAL GIBBONS. 



481 



to avoid sexani intercourse with his 
wife, until after she has given birth to 
the divinely begotten. 

Joseph obeys, and does not know his 
spouse for some months. 

And now we are told, that he never 
did have carnal knowledge of her 
at all ! 

Cardinal, don't you think that was 
tough on Joseph ? 

You ask us to believe that Mary was 
a perpetual virgin; and, as a necessary 
com]ilement, you ask us to believe that 
Joseph was a perpetual virgin. 

And yet. v,e all know that virginity 
was not the long suite of normal, adult 
Jews. 

:|; * :!: * H: * 

Coming back to your statement thai 
Machir was the only son of Manasseh : 

Cardinal, if you had inadvertently 
made this false statement m the first 
edition of your book, and had corrected 
it in your second, you might have been 
excused, although Bible readers might 
have been amazed at your carelessness. 

But you have published 73 editions 
of your book, and you persist in say- 
ing that Jesus was the only son of 
iVIary, basing your argument upon the 
alleged fact that Machir, referred to as 
■first born son, was an only son. 

You even cite Joshua, Chapter 17, 
verse I. as j^our authority. The cita- 
tion is on the lower margin of 
page 1G6. 

I suppose 3"ou assumed that every 
one of your 900,000 readers w^ould take 
your word for it, and never examine 
that chapter in the Bible. 

It Avas inconceivable to me that a 
man of your profession and promi- 
nence covld afford to publish an 
untruth, and then cite the chapter and 
verse in the Bible which he claimed to 
support his assertion. 

Therefore, I had actually accepted 
3'our statement about Machir as vera- 
cious, and bad answered you, on other 
lines, 



(In the series of chapters on the 
Roman Hierarchy, now in book form.) 

But before the final proofs passed 
beyond my reach, on their way to 
press, the thought occurred to me — 

"Does the Bible bear out the state- 
ment of Cardinal Gibbons? Look and 
see." i I 

8o I reached over and got The 
Book. 

Turning to Joshua, Chapter 17, I 
perused the first verse, which reads — 

"There was also a lot for the tribe of 
Menasseh, for he was the first born of 
.Joseph ; to wit, for Machir the first 
born of Manasseh, the father of 
(rilead, because he was a man of war; 
therefore he had Gilead and Bashan." 

That is the verse which yon cite as 
your authority for saying that Machir, 
described as first born, was an only son 
— thtrcfore when Jesus is described as 
Mary's first bom son, we must believe 
He Avas her onhj son. 

First of all, you will perceive that 
the verse cited does not declare that 
Machir was the only son of Manasseh. 

As soon as I saw that, I became cer- 
tain that ' a further reading of the 
chapter would show that the descrip- 
tion of Machir as the first born son 
meant exactly what it naturally 
implied; to wit, that Manasseh had 
other sons, just as Mary bore other 
sons, after her first born. 

Sure enough, verse G, of the same 
chapter, lets out the truth. That verse 
reads — 

"Because the daughters of Manasseh 
had an inheritance among his sons; 
and the rest of Manasseh's sons had 
the land of Gilead." 

He was a famous multiplier and 
replenisher, was INIanasseh ! 

And Cardinal Gibbons says, in 900,- 
000 copies of his book that Machir the 
first born of Manasseh was an only son. 

According to verse 6, of 17th Joshua, 
the daughters of Manasseh had an 
estate in common with some of his 
sons, and the rest of these sons of 



482 



WATSON'S MAGAZINE. 



Manasseli had, all to themselves, the 
land of Gilead. 

Noio^ Cardinal^ ivhat have you to say 
for yourself? 

You stand on the pillory. I accuse 
you of a Avilful and i^ersistent false 
statement. I prove it by the very 
chapter which you cited. 

WHAT IS YOUR DEFENSE? 

Is it conceivable that you would 
base a statement on a Biblical chapter 
which you never have read? 

Did you know that Manasseh had 
other sons besides Machir? 

If you did not know" it, you confess 
your ignorance of the Scriptures. 

If you did know it, you convict your- 
self of a premeditated purpose to 
deceive. 

Which horn of the dilennna will 
Your Eminence be pleased to take? 



Tho3. E. Watson: 

Ask Cardinal Gibbons if it is 
because of his influence with President 
Taft, that Catholic Sisters are per- 
mitted to sit in the halls of the U. S. 
Custom-house, and Sub-Treasury, New 
Orleans, and solicit alms, while all 
other religions or solicitors are kept 
out of the building. 

Also why is it that 80 per cent, of 
the promotions and appointments in 
Customs service of New Orleans, dur- 
ing the past year have been Knights of 
Columbus. Is it because Clarence 
Hebert, Collector of Customs and 
Taft's campaign manager, is a Knight 
of Columous; and why was Hebert's 
nephew appointed to a position over 
two others who had a higher rating in 
the examination? 

A FRIEND. 



P. S. : — The following note, just The same conditions prevail in 
received is significant: AVashington City. T. E. W. 




Richard Realf 



Don Piatt 



IT was on a stranoely inilcl day in 
midwinter of '59 that I stood 
smoking a cigar under the porch 
of my father's house at Mac-o-cheek. 
This home was half cottage and all 
cabin, for it had been built of logs, 
while the Indians yet lived in the land, 
and the additions and improvements 
since had softened without entirely 
concealing its origin. I was looking, 
in a laz5% dreamy w^ay, over the level 
willow-fringed plain of the valley, 
when a strange figure seemed to lounge 
in on my field of vision. It moved 
slowly into nearer sight from behind 
a clump of lilacs and elders, and I saw 
that a wayfarer and a stranger was 
approaching. He had the worn, slov- 
enly look of former circumstances. 
His broad-brimmed felt hat hung limp 
about his pale face and over his long 
hair, while his coat, dark, loose, and 
threadbare, had a touch of poverty's 
adornment in the fringe along the 
lower edges. His shoes, city made, 
had proved too light for the service 
required, and were in i^itiful seams 
and holes. 

As he approached and ascended the 
few steps of the porch, I saw a slender 
man, of medium height, with a pale 
face marked at the time by a neglected 
scanty beard and a scared hunted look. 

Without removing his hat or 
dropping the evident lot of soiled 
linen done up in a dirty handkerchief, 
he came closelj^ to me, as I rose from 
my chair, and said: 

"I am Richard Realf." 

This announcement carried no light 
to my questioning brain, but I started 
when he added, in a yet lower tone: 

"Secretary of State to Ossawattomie 
Brown's republic." 

John Brown — Ossawattomie Brown 
— who wrote the emancipation procla- 



mation on the mountains of Virginia, 
long before President Lincoln's bayo- 
nets tore the compact with hell from 
the Constitution of the United States, 
had just been hanged, and the country 
covering a continent yet thrilled with 
intense excitement over the bold 
attempt of the fierce fanatic. 

Small wonder Richard Realf 
announced himself in a low, almost- 
whispered confidence, for all about us 
were men who would have hanged the 
secretary of stale to the nearest tree 
with as little compunction as they 
would a mad dog. 

My response to this startling infor- 
mation was not dignified, nor very 
friendly, for I said: 

"The devil 3'ou are!" 

Noting the gleam of fear that flitted 
over his pitiful face like a fiash of 
heat lightning, as he half turned as if 
to fly, I more kindly gave him my 
hand, and asked him to be seated. He 
sank into a chair with a sigh of relief, 
and I noticed that his hand I held for 
an instant was not only shapely,. small, 
and soft as a woman's, but that it was 
thin and feverish. 

"You need rest and food," I said to 
the poor fellow. 

"Yes," he replied, calling up a wan 
smile, 'T believe I am starving." 

I seized the poor, little bundle, and, 
bidding him follow me, showed the 
honorable secretary of state to the 
guest chamber of the old house. Tell- 
ing him to lie down, I made an effort 
to remove his wrap, and found the 
unhapiJj' man had compromised by 
making his somewhat voluminous 
mantle do duty as a coat. He said, 
with a feeble smile, that he had been 
forced to leave his luggage in the 
keeping of a hotel man. 

Leaving him to rest while a meal 



484 



WATSON'S MAGAZINE. 



was being preiDared, I first took coun- 
cil with my brave little wife; and 
after, at her suggestion, called in the 
family. This because it is made up of 
men. Women advise fighting. They 
are the more combative in council, and 
the women of our house were unani- 
mous in their resolve to harbor, con- 
ceal, and protect the fugitive. My 
dear mother, an earnest Abolitionist, 
because of her Virginia birth and life, 
wherein her sensitive nature was 
pained by the cruel practices of 
slavery, warmly espoused the cause of 
Eealf, and proposed locking him in a 
huge storeroom we called purgatory, 
for that it was without either light or 
ventilation. 

My honored father said little. ^Mien 
called on for advice, he merely 
remarked that, "as this gentleman 
claimed to be secretary of state to a 
government that has evidently been 
hung, I think the better way Avould be 
to give him some money, and tell him 
to move on." 

My father had all the dislike to 
slavery held b}^ the more humane 
Southerners, but, like them, he had a 
profound respect for the guarantees of 
the Constitution. When the South 
threw over the sacred compact, as my 
father held it, and appealed to arms, 
he sent eight of his name — sons, 
grandsons, and nephews — to the field, 
and to the day of his death remained 
an ardent and active enemy of the 
Confederacy. 

After the eminent fugitive had 
strengthened himself with broiled 
chicken, hot corn cakes, golden butter, 
fresh eggs, and coffee, the very odor of 
Avhich would revive the dead — and he 
ate and drank with the relish of a hun- 
gry man iu good health — he seemed to 
pull himself together, and entered with 
zeal, and some cheerfulness, into the 
various schemes projDOsed by the sym- 
pathizing family for his better pro- 
tection. The last one devised was to 
disguise the ex-secretary of state in 



the wearing apparel of an elderly 
maiden then doing service in the 
household. Realf laughingly assented 
to tliis. and added that, with a little 
dark piguuMit. he could use the color of 
the rjice he had striven so dangerously 
to benefit. 

The success of this, however, 
depended not only on the confidence 
and discretion of the servants, but as 
to Avhether our neighbors had observed 
Realfs arrival. 

Tliis was before the appearance of 
that mysterious pest known as the 
tramp, and wayfarers were few, and 
the country people, keeidy observant 
not only as to strangers, but their own 
movements, permitted no one to pass 
without challenge and gossipy com- 
ment. We soon learned that our poor 
friend had not escaped observation, 
and before night set in more than one 
neighbor had questioned us as to the 
late arrival. An eminent politician at 
Washington said of another, sadly 
entangled in the Credit Mobilier scan- 
dal, that, "when a man takes to lying, 
he should remember that he has choice 
of lies, and select the one having the 
most truth in it as likely to give him 
the least trouble." We acted on the 
spirit of this wise axiom before wo had 
heard it reduced to words, and, putting 
our fugitive in a spare suit of my 
clothes, that required but little altera- 
tion, and cropping his somewhat lux- 
uriant loks, we changed his name from 
Richard Realf to Ralph Richards, and 
introduced him as a distant relative 
from the East. 

We soon recognized that the man we 
harbored was a gentleman, a very cour- 
teous, kind-hearted, graceful creature, 
full of poetrj', and loving romance as 
he hated real life. As to the waj'-s o" 
this hard, fierce mone}' getting world, 
he was as innocent as a babe. P^re the 
end of his exile among us he became 
quite an exasperating burden on 
account of an utter indifference to the 
value of money. He expended our 



RICHARD REALF. 



485 



means with an ease and liberality so 
peculiar to the poets and long-luiireci 
patriots from down-trodden places in 
Europe. I doiiht which, the foar of 
detection or the loss of his hair, gave 
him the deeper concern. This love of 
the locks he shared with the brother 
patriots referred to, but, fortunately, 
he ditFered in being cleanly. The 
European connection between soiled 
linen and a sacred cause I never could 
comprehend, unless upon a suggestion 
once made by the witty Governor Tom 
Corwin, of Ohio. We were sitting 
together one night, listening to an elo- 
quent, animated piece of real estate 
dwelling upon the Avoes of Italy. "The 
people may be cast down, but they rise 
from the touch of mother earth lilce 
the fabled god of old, stronger, and 
more terribly fierce than before," he 
cried. 

"I see, I see," whispered the gov- 
ernor to me; "that accounts for it. 
They come up stronger and dirtier 
every time." 

At the i^eriod I write of, I had 
acquired some notoriety as a reformer, 
being the editor of an eccentric journal 
called the Mac-o-cheek Press, friend of 
man, that devoted its pungent columns 
to making itself disagreeable to des- 
pots in general, and the slave-holders 
of the South in particular. Dr. Gama- 
liel Bailey, one of the most suggestive 
minds of the day, had created the free 
soil party out of the old abolition 
cause. He saw the absurdity of a 
political organization, not only outside 
of the Constitution, but in deadly 
antagonism to that foundation of our 
Government. So he got up the plat- 
form which acknowledged the right of 
slavery in the States, and fought its 
further spread to the territories. 
Seward, Salmon P. Chase, the elder 
Birney, John P. Hale, Ben AVade, 
Charles Sumner, and the more practi- 
cal men of the anti-slavery class, saw 
the wisdom of this, and so the little 
party was organized. It was a beauti- 



ful party as far as it went, or, to 
express oneself better, what there was 
of it. It had an unhappy lack of 
A'otes, and, being opposed to the selfish 
interests of the masses, had small pros- 
pect of an increase, until the Barn- 
burners of New York and the death of 
the Wliig party threw out of employ- 
ment thousands of voters, who, to use 
the Avords of Daniel Webster, "did not 
knoAv Avhere to go," and so gravitated 
into (he i)arty that eventually elected 
President Lincoln. 

I refer to this, not only because it 
is a part of my story of Realf, but 
because I note a tendency today among 
orators, editors, and historians to 
claim for the efforts of the then anti- 
slavery advocates the eventual trimnph 
of their cause. 

Looking back noAV to the earnest and 
gifted men, a group of rare excellence 
m mental gifts and moral character, it 
is sad to realize hoAv little they accom- 
13lished. Had not the fanaticism of 
the Southern people blazed into civil 
Avar, Ave Avould today be hunting 
slaves at the North and hanging aboli- 
tionists at the South. The youthful 
enthusiast in the cause of reform feels 
at last, Avhether he lives to learn or 
not, that the intellectual process in the 
advocacy of right, seldom, if cA^er, 
reach the masses they are used to 
influence. 

A fcAv statistics give us the fact and 
the reason for this disheartening 
result. We have a population of 
nearly one hundred millions. Of 
this it is a liberal estimate to 
say that fiA-e millions are readers. 
Of the fiA^e about three read 
books, and all read newspapers. Of 
the book readers, tAvo-t birds are 
devoted to fictions that have no moral 
purpose or influence. The journals, or 
more properly newspapers, are what 
the name indicates, printed records of 
curi'ent events, mostly of a shocking, 
bad sort, and depending, as they do, 
not upon circulation alone, but adver- 



486 



WATSON'S MAGAZINE. 



tising, for their success, are, of course, 
cautious not to offend b}^ the expres- 
sion of views in favor of reform. 
Reform is ever unpopuhir. All 
wrongs lie in the consent of the 
wronged, and what with the fierce sup- 
port of those who thriv^e on the abuse, 
and the dull, heavy, ignorant con- 
servatism of the masses, martyrs are 
readily made, so that we need noS ' 
Avonder that, horrible as slavery wa«, 
it had the press and the pulpit, the 
business interests and the selfish greed 
of the many to sustain and maintain 
it. So effective was this that the term 
Abolitionist became one of keenest 
reproach, from which men shrank, and 
even to this day it retains a part of its 
taint. 

The real obstacle to reform, how- 
ever, was in the impossibility found in 
reaching the popular mind. At the 
time of meeting Richard Realf, J. 
belonged to the class that believed 
when the argument was made the 
cause was won. I did not see that the 
argument was unheard, nor did I then 
know that for one influence of an intel- 
lectual sort, even when heard, there 
were impulses born of passions and 
self-interests, that made moral prog- 
ress impossible. 

Editing a newspaper favorable to 
freedom, that gained quite a circula- 
tion and no little notoriety, I found 
that its success was based entirely on 
its power to amuse. AVhile stumping 
the state with Salmon P. Chase, I saw 
that where we had hundreds, our 
opponents of the Whig and Demo- 
cratic parties gathered thousands, and 
those two political organizations 
agi'eed on one point only, and that was 
in denouncing us as Abolitionists, 
negro worshipers, and altogether very 
vile, low fellows, to be shunned gen- 
erall}^, and in extreme cases worth}' of 
being hanged. 

I said to my gifted associate, Salmon 
P. Chase, one day: "The trouble with 
this people is their dense ignorance. 



Do you know, passing, as we do, from 
county to county throughout the state, 
that, leaving out the larger towns, we 
will not find a house with a book in it, 
otiior than the Bible and a medical 
almanac? What is the use of striving 
to move such a mass of ignorance by 
eloquent appeals?" 

He responded, in his way, by calling 
my attention to the progress made by 
humanity before printing was known, 
and that God, in creating man, had 
made him self-sustaining inasmuch as 
evil was temporary only, while good 
formed the solid foundation of all 
things; that outside of book-making 
and mere intellectual efforts, elements 
Avere at work that would eventually 
triumi)h in the confounding of the 
wicked and the establishment of 
justice. 

His words proved prophetic, 
although the means were then 
unknown to this great and good man. 
Our enemies in plunging us into that 
terrible war did for our cause, what 
we could not have accomplished our- 
selves. Indeed, our part in the work 
was so small that it might have been 
omitted. 

Realf had struck the outer edge of 
the notoriety accorded me as a 
reformer, and walking nearly three 
hundred miles, mostly by night, found 
refuge in our house. 

I made a pilgrimage to Columbus, 
for the purpose of consulting Gov- 
ernor Chase about the poor refugee. I 
knew before he could be taken from 
Ohio to Virginia, a requisition would 
have to be made. The governor lis- 
tened much interested to 1113^ story, and 
after some consideration, said he 
thought our alarm uncalled for. 
Beyond a bare mention of the name, 
and the fact of such an office as Mr. 
Realf claimed to hold, the governor 
had seen nothing. He thought as Vir- 
ginia had hanged John Brown, and 
dispersed his followers, with the con- 
sent, if not approbation, of all men, 



EICHAED KEALF. 



487 



Virginia felt satisfied, and that no 
effort AYould be made to hunt down so 
obscure a man as my friend Realf. 

We soon found the governor was 
right in his view of the case. No 
detectives nor United States marshals 
appeared to haunt our happy valley, 
and the name of Realf disappeared 
from the press after such brief men- 
tion, that the public soon forgot that 
it had ever appeared. This seemed to 
annoy Eealf, more than his danger 
had moved him. He not only assumed 
again his name, but had it inserted at 
the head of the Mac-o-cheek Press, as 
associate editor. 

The fact was, as I subsequently 
learned, that Realf had not then been 
identified in the public mind with 
Ossawattomie Brown's attempt in Vir- 
ginia. The poetic tramp was, at the 
time of Brown's insane attempt, in 
Texas, and having imprudently 
revealed his knowledge of, and asso- 
ciation with the feared fanatic, he 
barely escaped a mob by oeing arrested 
and taken to Washington City, in 
irons. The poor fellow suffered from 
both sides, of those who did know of 
him. The pro-slavery advocates 
thirsted for his blood, and the aboli- 
tionists, thinking that he had turned 
informer, were equall}^ wrathful. Mr. 
Redpath, in his life of Old Ossawat- 
tomie, prefaced it with some pungent 
remarks, bearing on Richard Realf, 
which he afterward corrected. 

Realf fled like a frightened hare 
from the authorities at Washington, 
and while fleeing, read in a newspaper 
a further use of his name in connec- 
tion with Brown, and fearing a new 
development connecting him with the 
affair he plunged into yet deeper 
obscurity. 

■ It is difficult, at this daj^, to appre- 
ciate the excitement that followed 
Brown's arrest and execution. The 
North was shocked and startled at the 
daring attempt, while at the South 
there was a general belief that only a 



surface indication had been developed, 
and that lying back of it was a huge 
l)lot of a servile insurrection ready at 
any moment to explode. The women 
went tearfully, trembling, and in 
pra3-er to bed, while fathers, husbands, 
and brothers slept on 'knives and 
revolvers. One can not bla'me, nor 
wonder, for of all horrible things 
known to humanity, a servile insurrec- 
tion is the most horrible. The women 
could well pray to God for protection 
to avert the awful calamity, for when 
it came there Avas nothing but a prayer 
for immediate death to escape its 
horrors. 

In making my poetic refugee an 
assistant pen-driver, I soon discovered 
that he had not the remotest knowl- 
edge of what was needed in an editor, 
and equally remote information as to 
his value as co-worker on that 
sprightly emanation of journalistic 
wisdom. His bills and editorials were 
alike long and heavy, and while the 
one were shadowy and indistinct, the 
others were j^ainfully near and pal- 
pable. 

It became necessary to discharge my 
associate editor. It was a painful 
duty, and to escape that I resorted to 
stratagem.. He had a lecture written 
on Shakespeare, that he had delivered 
at Brighton, England, under the pat- 
ronage of Lady Byron and other dis- 
tinguished male and female people. I 
suggested, that next to the cause we 
advocated, I thought the people were 
most ignorant of Shakespeare, and I 
believed he could do well (the Lord 
forgive me) in throwing light upon 
the Bard of Avon, in the face of the 
public. 

To this end we had a trial at the 
flourishing post-toAvn of West Lib- 
erty. Richard Realf's lecture on 
Shakespeare had a successful run of 
one night at our nearest post-town. 
That Fourth of July designation of a 
village means, generally, a whiskey 
saloon and a hundred inhabitants, but 



488 



WATSON'S MAGAZINE. 



in this instance it is a lovely little 
maple-shaded burg, nestled under a 
wood-crowned hill, overlooking the 
lovely valley of Mad .River. 

It had, at the time I write of, but 
one hall, and that in the top story of 
the Ordway block, and the roof for a 
ceiling, and this slanting to the end 
where the i)latform was erected was so 
low that the lecturer had to be cautious 
in his gesticulations, lest he skin his 
knuckles, or bump his head on the 
plaster above. Lit with a few malod- 
orous coal-oil lamps, on the winter 
night in question, and heated by a 
roaring stove, he had the beauty and 
intelligence of West Liberty to per- 
spire and applaud an eloquent disqui- 
sition on an innnoital of whose work 
no one of that brilliant assembly had 
ever read a line. A select few of us 
supplied the lights, fire, audience and 
applause. To insure the last, armed 
with sticks and umbrellas, w^e not only 
led but thundered to such an extent 
that Ordway's hall was in danger, and 
the startled loafers about Cook's 
saloon and Brownell's grocery hurried 
in, filling the little hall and stairway 
with an anxious crowd, eager to know- 
all about Shakespeare, and the cause of 
this (to use a popular expression) 
u.nexpected "boom." 

The lecturer was delighted with his 
success. It had been gotten up on sub- 
scription, and the entire amount real- 
ized came in all to ten dollars and fiftj'' 
cents, the ten coming from the pocket 
of the senior editor, and the fifty 
cents from the amiable postmaster. 
The sum was handed the ex-secretary 
of state. Armed with this, and sup- 
plied with a w^ell-stuffed valise, Eich- 
ard Realf, ex-secretary of the John 
Brown republic, passed from our 
vision into the busy world never to 
return. 

While at our home Realf gave me. 
from time to time, fragments of his 
autobiography, through which were 
hints of a mysterious origin. His 



mother must have been a remarkable 
woman, for Kealf was a man of genius. 
He told me of her taste for poetr}', and 
how she had educated him in a poetic 
way, until he astonished her with 
verses of his own when scarcely able to 
lis]:) them himself. A knowledge of his 
precocious turn coming to the ears of 
a lady — Lady Stafford, if I remember 
rightly— she took upon herself his 
education. 

I learned subsequently, and not from 
Realf. that a sister of his, m servant in 
Ltuly Stafford's family, interested that 
literary woman in her brother's behalf. 

Elevated to this novel position, the 
wonderful boy became a pet of a 
Brighton coterie that included Lady 
Byron. Richard, having quarreiea 
with his first patron, found in the 
unlu'.ppy, and somewhat hysterical 
relict of (he noble poet another wiio 
took uj) the ta^k where Lady Stafford 
dro[)pcd it, of spoiling (he boy. He 
had jjorsisted in publishing a volume 
of sickly verses, in opposition to the 
advice of his earlier friend, and cast- 
ing her off, swung to the skirts of the 
more congenial widow. 

The warm interest evinced by Lady 
P>yron for this strange boy gave rise 
to an absurd scandal to the effect that 
Realf was an illegitimate son of the 
noble creator of poetic despair. Lady 
Byron may liave thought this to be 
true, for we well know, since Mrs. 
Stowe's remarkable revelation, that the 
poor woman was quite capable of the 
wildest beliefs. 

Be that as it may, the noble 
patroness of a spoiled boy soon tired 
of her work, and gave the youth such 
treatment that he suddenly disap- 
peared. He was not seen, nor heard 
of, b}' his friends, for nearly a year 
after, when ragged, half-starved, and 
quite ill, he appeared at his mother's 
house. 

He told me he had tried his fortune 
at London, like Chatterton, and like 
Chatterton, would have starved, but 



KICHARD REALF. 



489 



for a benevolent old baker, who 
donated bread to him every day, until 
his return home. 

The literary circle at Brighton, hav- 
ing won their elephant, soon wearied 
of their burden, and finding the poetic 
pet was inspired by Mrs. Stovre's 
"Uncle Tom's Cabin," and sought, as 
the friend of nuin, to free the colored 
race of America, they made up a purse, 
and shipped him to these shores. At 
that time Ossawattomie Brown was 
the hero of Kansas, and Realf, seeking 



him, offered his services. The rough 
old fanatic had no use for a poet, and 
so made Richard a piece of fringe- 
work to his imaginary republic. 

"We never met after his departure 
from Mac-o-chee. I heard of him 
from time to time, once in the army, 
but the hearing was not of much 
encouragement. A man of genius, with 
his delicate nerves outside his clothes, 
he seemed to have w^orried through a 
life, in a blind sort of w^ay, leaving 
behind only a few poems to tell that he 
had ever been. 




EDaC/lTIOn/:iL 
DEP/lRTOEriT. 



SOME QUESTIONS FHOM AN OLD 
LOUISIANA POPULIST. 

Dear ]\Ir. Watson: The Mexican 
"money question" has long perplexed me. 
Those who have sojourned in that country 
tell us all commodities in that Republic 
can be had for one-half the amount of U. 
S. money (gold, silver or greenback) that 
it requires to purchase them if paid for in 
Mexican money. Why is this thus? 

2. Persons at all informed claim that 
no reliance can be placed on the U. S. 
Treasury reports as to the amount of 
money outstanding, or in circulation. How 
are we to arrive at a just conclusion in 
the matter? 

I am sure your readers would appre- 
ciate a thorough explanation of these two 
propositions. 

We know you have a multitude of big 
jobs on hand and, en passant, are handling 
them admirably; it you cannot spare the 
time to enlighten us, kindly refer inquir- 
ers to some source from which a true and 
honest answer may be had. 

i\Ir. Watson, I am a poor man, but if 
funds for your defense in the matter of 
the Roman Catholic prosecution now pend- 
ing, are needed, please draw on me for 
$10.00. 

Also, where the full text, (with com- 
ment) of the Alliance sub-treasury plan 
may be had. Sincerely yours, 

A. BENOIT. 
Answers. 

(1) The reason assigned by the experts 
for the difference between American 
money in Mexico .and the currency of that 
country, is that every dollar of our money, 
whether in paper or in silver, can be 
redeemed in gold. Therefore, all of our 
money has the value of gold. The IMexi- 
can money is not redeemable in gold, and 
therefore has not the value of gold. It 
has approximately the value of silver. 

(2) The report from the Treasury 
Department represents as in circulation, 
all the money outstanding, excepting that 
which is reserved in the Treasury itself. 

To arrive at the true .amount of money 
in circulation, the bank reserves. State 
and National, should be deducted, and 
then a reasonable allowance made for th'!* 



which has been lost or destroyed, and that 
which has been hoarded by miserly indi- 
viduals. In my judgment, this last item 
is far more important than Is generally 
apprehended. It is no uncommon thing 
to read of the wretched death of some 
beggar or supposed pauper and the finding 
of large sums of cash on their persons or 
hidden away somewhere in their wretched 
den. It is highly probable that thousands 
of these places where money has been 
secreted, are never discovered. The 
actual money engaged in our commerce, 
bears no comparison with the volume of 
bank checks, bills of exchange and drafts 
that are in constant use. Besides, we lose 
vast sums spent abroad by our tourists, 
and carried home by the returning 
emigrant. 

(3) There is so great an interest mani- 
fested just now in the sub-treasury plan, 
proposed by the farmers 20 years ago, 
that I publish the full text. 

On Feb. 24th, 189 0, Zebulon Vance of 
North Carolina introduced into the U. S. 
Senate a bill to carry out the sub-treasury 
plan by the establishment of a system of 
agricultural depositories, for the accom- 
modation of farmers and planters. 

Broadly speaking, this bill would have 
given our farmers the benefit of advan- 
tages which the European farmers have 
been enjoying for one hundred years. 

When the Democrats and the Republi- 
cans of 1912, get ready to prepare their 
sub-treasury bill in accordance with the 
pledges in their National Platforms of 
1912, I can, if they wish it, furnish them 
with a full copy of the Bill introduced by 
Senator Vance in 1890. It cannot be 
improved upon. 

It will also give me pleasure to furnish 
them with facts and arguments in favor of 
the sub-treasury plan and principle, 
which have never been answered and 
Vi'hich never can be answered save by 
ridicule and abuse. 

Those facts and arguments are con- 
tained in a book published by the National 
Economist Publishing Co., Washington, 
^ C, June, 1891. 

















'^M^ 










Your Telephone Horizon 



The horizon ot vision, tlie circle 
whicii bounds our sight, has not 
changed. 

It is best observed at sea. Though 
the ships of today are larger than the 
ships of fifty years ago, you cannot 
see them until they come up over the 
edge of the world, fifteen or tv^^enty 
miles away. 

A generation ago the horizon of 
speech was very limited. When your 
grandfather was a young man, his 
voice could be heard on a still day for 
perhaps a mile. Even though he used 
a speaking trumpet, he could not be 
heard nearly so far as he could be seen. 

Today all this has been changed. 
The telephone has vastly extended 
the horizon of speech. 



Talking two thousand miles \i 



an 



everyday occurrence, while in order 
to see this distance, you would need 
to mount your telescope on a platform 
approximately 560 miles high. 

As a man is followed by his shadow, 
so is he followed by the horizon of 
telep!.one communication. When he 
travels across the continent his tele- 
phone horizon travels with him, and 
wherever he may be he is always at 
the center of a great circle of telephone 
neighbors. 

What is true of one man is true of 
the whole public. In order to provide 
a telephone horizon for each member 
of the nation, the Bell System has 
been esitablished. 



American Telephone and Telegraph Company 

And Associated Comp^anies 



Every Bell Telephone is the Center of the System, 



492 



WATSON'S MAGAZINE. 



A bill to establish a system of Sub- 
Treasuries, and for other purposes. 

Section 1. Be it enacted by the Senate 
and House of Representatives of the 
United States in Congress assembled, that 
there may be established in each of tbe 
counties of each State of this United 
States, a branch of the Treasury Depart- 
ment of the United States, to be known 
and designated as a Sub-Treasury, as 
hereinafter provided, when one hundred 
or more citizens of any county in any 
State shall petition the Secretary of the 
Treasury requesting the location of a Sub- 
Treasury in such county, and shall, 

1. Present written evidence duly 
authenticated by oath or affirmation of 
county clerk and sheriff, showing that the 
average gross amount per annum of cot- 
ton, wheat, oats, corn and tobacco pro- 
duced and sold in that county for the last 
preceding two years exceeds the sum of 
$500,000 at current prices in said county 
at that time, and, 

2. Present a good and sufficient bond 
for title to a suitable and adequate 
amount of land to be donated to the Gov- 
ernment of the United States for the loca- 
tion of the Sub-Treasury buildings, and, 

3. A certificate of election showing that 
the site for the location of such Sub- 
Treasury has been chosen by a popular 
vote of the citizens of that county, and 
also naming the manager of the Sub- 
Treasury elected at said election for the 
purpose of taking charge of said Sub- 
Treasury under such regulations as may 
be prescribed. It shall in that case be the 
duty of the Secretary of the Treasury to 
proceed without delay to establish a Sub- 
Treasury Department in such county as 
hereinafter provided. 

Sec. 2. That any owner of cotton, wheat, 
corn, oats, or tobacco, may deposit the 
same in the Sub-Treasury nearest the 
point of its production and receive there- 
for treasury notes hereinafter provided 
for, equal at the date of deposit to eighty 
per centum of the net value of such prod- 
ucts at the market price, said price to be 
determined by the Secretary of the Treas- 
ury, under rules and regulations pre- 
scribed, based upon the price current in 
the leading cotton, tobacco, or grain mar- 
kets of the United States; hue no deposit 
consisting in whole or in part of cotton, 
tobacco, or grain imported into this coun- 
try shall be received under the provisions 
of this act. 

Sec. 3. That the Secretary of the Treas- 
ury shall cause to be prepared treasury 
notes in such amounts as may be required 
for the purpose of the above section,, and 
in such form and denomination as he may 
prescribe, provided that no note shall be 
of a denomination less than $1, or more 
than $1,000. 

Sec. 4. That the treasury notes issued 
under this act shall be receivable for cus- 



toms; and shall be a full legal tender for 
all debts, both public and private, and 
such notes when held by any national 
banking association shall be counted as a 
part of its lawful reserve. 

Sec. 5. It shall be the duty of the man- 
ager of a Sub-Treasury when cotton, 
grain, or tobacco is received by him to 
deposit as above provided, to give a ware- 
house receipt showing the amount and 
grade of quality of such cotton, tobacco 
or grain, and its value at date of deposit; 
the amount of treasury notes the Sub- 
Treasury has advanced on the product; 
that the interest on the money so 
advanced is at the rate of 1 per centum 
per annum; expressly stating the amount 
of insurance, weighing, classing, ware- 
housing, and other charges that will run 
against such deposit of cotton, grain, or 
tobacco. All warehouse receipts shall be 
negotiable by indorsement. 

Sec. 6. That the cotton, grain, or 
tobacco deposited in the Sub-Treasury 
under the provisions of this act may be 
redeemed by the holder of the warehouse 
receipt herein provided for, either at the 
Sub-Treasury in which tne products is 
deposited or at any other Sub-Treasury, 
by the surrender of such w-arehouse 
receipt and the payment in lawful money 
of the United States of the same amount 
originally advanced by the Sub-Treasury 
against the product, and such further 
amount as may be necessary to discharge 
all interest that may have accrued against 
the advance of money made on the deposit 
of produce and all insurance, warehouse 
and other charges that attach to the 
product for warehousing and handling. 
All lawful money received at the Sub- 
Treasury as a return of the actual amount 
of money advanced by the Government 
against farm products as above specified 
shall be returned, with a full report of the 
transaction, to the Secretary of the Treas- 
ury, who shall make record of the trans- 
action and cancel and destroy the money 
so returned. A Sub-Treasury that receives 
a warehouse receipt as above provided, 
together with the return of the proper 
amount of lawful money and all charges 
as herein provided, when the product for 
which it is given is stored in some other 
Sub-Treasury, shall give an order on such 
other Sub-Treasury for the deliverance of 
the cotton, grain, or tobacco, as the case 
may be; and the Secretary of the Treasury 
shall provide for the adjustment between 
the Sub-Treasuries of all charges. 

Sec. 7. The Secretary of the Treasury 
shall prescribe such rules and regulations 
as are necessary for governing the details 
of the management of the Sub-Treasuries, 
fixing the salary, bond and responsibility 
of each of the managers of the suh-treas- 
uries (provided that the salary of any 
manager of a sub-treasury shall not exceed 
the sum of $1,500 per annum), holding 



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the managers of sub-treasuries personally 
responsible on their bonds for weights 
and classitications of all produce, provid- 
ing for the rejection of unmerchantable 
grades of cotton, grain, or tobacco, or for 
such as may be in bad condition; and 
shall provide rules for the sale at public 
auction of all cotton, corn, oats, wheat or 
tobacco, that has been placed on deposit 
for a longer period than twelve months 
after due notice published. The proceeds 
of the sale of such product shall be 
applied, first, to the reimbursement to the 
sub-treasury of the amount originally 
advanced, together with all charges; and, 
second, the balance shall be held on 
deposit for the benefit of the holder of the 
warehouse receipt, who shall be entitlea 
to receive the same on the surrender of 
his warehouse receipt. The Secretary of 
the Treasury shall also provide rules for 
the duplication of any papers in case Oi 
loss or destruction. 

Sec. 8. It shall be the duty of the Sec- 
retary of the Treasury, when section i of 
this act shall have been complied with, to 
cause to be erected, according to the laws 
and customs governing the construction of 
Government buildings, a suitable sub- 
treasury building, with such warehouse or 
elevator facilities as the character and 
amount of the products of that section 
may indicate as necessary. Such build- 
ings shall be supplied with all modern 
conveniences for handling and salely 
storing and preserving tlie products likely 
to be deposited. 

Sec. 9. That any gain arising from thf 
charges for insurance, weighing, storing, 
classing, holding, shipping, interest or 
other charges, after paying all expenses of 
conducting the sub-treasury, shall be 
accounted for and paid into the treasury 
of the United States. 

Sec. 10. The term of office for a man- 
ager of a sub-treasury shall be two years, 
and the regular election to fill such office 
shall be at the same time as the election 
for members of the House of Representa- 
tives of the Congress of the United States. 



In case of a vacancy in the office of man- 
ager of the sub-treasury by death, resig- 
nation, or otherwise, the Secretary of the 
Treasury shall have power to appoint a 
manager for the unexpired term. 

Sec. 11. The sum of fifty millions of 
dollars, or so much thereof as may be 
found necessary to carry out the provi- 
sions of this act, is hereby appropriated 
out of any moneys in the treasury not 
otherwise appropriated, for that purpose. 



A FEW QUESTIONS — AND THEIR 
ANSWERS. 

Hon. Thos. E. Watson: There are some 
things I would like to know. As your 
sometime elector I feel, entitled to the 
benefit of your great knowledge. 

1. At whose insistence was the negro 
first introduced as a factor in politics? 

2. If it was done when he was a black 
chattel, was it not a crime against white 
people? 

3. If as three-fiftns of a man the black 
chattel dominated the Government for 
quite a while, was it not "black heel on 
white necks?" 

4. AVho gloried in that nigger domina- 
tion over the whites? 

5. Was the Democratic party the 
slavery party of the country, previous to 
secession? 

6. Was secession to protect slavery? 

7. Was not the Civil War fought, by 
the South, to perpetuate slavery? And by 
the North to perpetuate the Union? 

Please reply in Jeffersonian or in your 
Magazine. 

Your one time elector, 
Hapeville, Ga. J. C. FONVILLE. 

Answer. 

(1) The Republican party, just after 
the Civil War. 

(2) Of course it was a crime against 
the white people to inject 3 million sav- 
ages into the body politic. 



494 



WATSON'S MAGAZINE. 



(3) It certainly was, in re-construction 
days. 

The Republican party of course. 

(5) Whigs and Democrats alike upheld 
slavery in the South, as did the Jefferson 
Republicans. 

(C) Secession grew out of the fact that 
the North refused to abide by the condi- 
tions under which the States had come 
together in the third union. There had 
already been two unions, each of which 
had been disolred by voluntary consent. 
The South, in 1860, believed she had as 
much right to withdraw from the. third 
union, as she had to withdraw from the 
first and second. 

(7) No. The South fought because she 
was invaded: she rushed to arms to defend 
herself against these invaders. The North 
fought to free the negroes, although she 
pretended to fight simply to preserve the 
Union. There was no reason why the 
Southern States should not have been 
allowed to form a Confederacy of their 
own, leaving the other States combined in 
another Union wuich would have been 
strong enough for all practical purposes. 
The real reason why the North would not 
allow the South to set up a separate Con- 
federacy was, the North did not wish to 
lose the Southern provinces, which are 
exploited by the Northern manufacturers 
and financiers. T. E. W. 



QUERIES ON MONEY QUESTION. 

Dear Sir: I notice in your Magazine 
of September, 1911, that a j\Ir. Ernest C. 
Mobley, on page 39 6, about middle of first 
column, makes the following statement: 

"An Associated Press dispatch recently 
announced that the United States pos- 
sessed a fraction over $34.00 per capita. 
France has $117.00 per capita." 

Please write in full the meaning of 
these statements. Does the $34.00 spring 
from the same source with the $117.00? 
Very respectfully, 

PAUL TOWNSEND. 



Conunent. 

No. 1. By "circulation per capita," is 
meant that, if the entire amount of money 
afloat were divided among all the people 
there would be a certain amount for each 
person. According to ]\Ir. Mobley, the per 
capita circulation is over $3 4. 

Our sources of money are gold and sil- 
ver coinage, the certificates issued against 
uncoined gold and silver, the small 
amount of paper money issued by the 
Government, and the $720,000,000 of 
National Bank notes which are used as 
money, although they are not full legal 
tender, and therefore not lawful money. 

T. E. W. 



THE LINES HAVE NO MEANING, MY 

SON. 

Dear Sir: Will you kindly humor a 
schoolboy's curiosity, and tell me the 
meaning of the following lines taken from 
Tennyson's poem, "Locksley Hall?" 

"Mother-age (for mine I knew not) help 
me as when life begun; 
Rift the hills, and roll the waters, flash 
the lightnings, weigh the sun." 

I have a volume of Tennyson's poems 
with notes explaining the obscure pas- 
sages in each poem. I am, however, with- 
out notes on the particular passage 
quoted above. 

Kindly answer through the Educational 
Department of Watson's Magazine. Your 
explanation will be greatly appreciated. 
Yours respectfully, 

"SCHOOLBOY." 

Answer. 

Frequently a poet's eye, "in fine 
frenzy rolling," sees things that no one 
else ever saw, and his pen writes mystical 
nonsense. 

Browning and Tennyson were good at 
that. T. E. W. 





BULL MOOSE TRAILS. (Price 50 cents.) 
Bj^ Mrs. Anuie Riley Hale, 6 West 
6 6th Street, New York City. 

This work is a complement to Mrs. 
Hale's "Rooseveltian Pact and Fable." 

Mrs. Hale is one of the very many peo- 
ple who consider Col. Roosevelt "as 
sounding brass and a tinkling cimbal." 

There is some doubt on her mind as to 
whether T. R. was more of a humbug lu 
war-time than he was in peace-time, but 
there is absolutely no doubt on her mind 
that he is a humbug, first, last and all 
the time. 

It must be admitted that this view of 
T. R. prevails extensively. 

There is such a difference between the 
virtuous noise he makes, and the things 
he actually does, and the plutocrats who 
are his backers, that the average man 
could hardly be otherwise than suspicious. 

In this book, :\Irs. Hale gives the true 
and full story of the sensational manner 
in which President Roosevelt insulted 
General Miles, at a White House recep- 



tion, when Gen. Miles was the Commander 
of the U. S. Army. 

She also relates how T. R. "took 
Panama," at the very time he was assur- 
ing Congress that he was getting corns on 
his knees, by meekly kneeling to CongreS' 
sional directions. 

INIrs. Hale makes out an awfully strong 
case against the Colonel. 

Then she tells of how T. R. stood in 
witii the Xev>- ?.Iexico bosses, in 1906. 

The indefatigable lady actually pursues 
the Colonel in his African hunting expe- 
dition. She follows him to Cairo, where 
he made a speech telling England how to 
govern Egypt — after which, as you will 
remember, T. R. went to nearly every 
European court, and told everybody how 
to behave. 

Of course, Mrs. Hale gives an account 
of the Colonel's famous row with the 
Papa, at Rome. 

If you have a spare half-a-dollar and 
want to have a good run for your money, 
you couldn't invest it to better advantage 









The History of The . . . 
Roman Catholic Hierarchy 

By THOS. E. WATSON 

In Book Form $1.00, Postpaid 

THE JEFFERSONIAN PUBLISHING CO. 
THOMSON, - GEORGIA 



496 



WATSON'S MAGAZINE. 



than in buying a copy of "Bull Moosf 
Trails." Order from the autforess, w. c 
is her own courageous publisher. 



"THE GATES OF TWILIGHT;" "IX 
LOVE'S DOMAIN." By H. E. Har 

man. Stone & Barringer, Charlotte, 
N. C, Publishers. 

These are such poems ^ as Longfellow 
asked for, in his exquisite "Nightfall." 

I have never gone tnrough two such 
collections of poetry — collections in which 
there is not one poem that the reader 
could wish had been omitted. 

Mr. Harman is not one of the "bards 
sublime': he does not pretenfl to be; but 
his work is genuinely poetical, and h^ 
must be recognized as one of the minor 
poets. 

He has not the intensity and the orig-- 
nality of that neglected genius, Don Mar- 
quis, but there is a subtle charm aboi' 
Mf. Harman's verse which draws one on, 
from line to line, until the whole book 
has been read. You feel that he has nut 
swept the trash off the floor of his literary 
shop, and thrown it into your face. 

You do feel that way about almost 
every "complete works" of other poets. 

Like the Sybiline Leaves of the 
Romans, these "complete works" would 
be infinitely more valuable, if their num- 
ber were reduced. 

Mr. Harman's subjects are, human 



loves and sorrows, the inevitable acci- 
dents, as well as tlie pleasures, of life; 
the beauties of nature, the flowers of the 
held, the cl.anges of seasons, the magic 
wocds and waters. The old flower-garden 
ai)i,eals to l.im, as it has always appealed 
to men and women of tender sentiment. 
The old deserted water-mill, the autumn 
woods, the broo). , the Christmas rose, the 
twinkling stars, the restless sea — -all these 
inspire poetic thought in Mr. Harman, as 
they have done since Nature and the man 
of feeling became acquainted. 

"My Silent Guest" is the mystical poem 
of these two delightful volumes. It is a 
wi oily different expression of the idea in 
Poe's "Haven." 

As gocd specimens of Mr. Harman's 
work, 1 present two of his poems to our 
readers. 

Have You Heard the South A Callinj;? 

Have you plucked the snowy daisies in the 

Spring? 
Then a memory of their sweetness yet 
must cling 
To the Past, v/ith all its treasure — 
To the Past's unta iiterl jjleasure 
That in your soul forevermore will sing. 

Have you watched snowy daisy fields at 

night? 
Every stem witli heart of gold and petals 

white, 



Life and Times of 

Andrew Jackson 

A Magnificent Book Historical— Valuable 

By Thos, E. Watson 

Beautifully Printed dk Illustrated 
$1.50, Postpaid 

The Jeffersonian Publishing Co. 

Thomson, - Georgia 



BOOK REVIEWS. 



497 



With the moonlight on them streaming 
And half the stars a-dreamins 
And Love beside you walking in the light. 

Have you heard the mock-bird singing soft 

and low? 
In the stillness of the niglit-time, singing 
slow, 
AVith a harvest moon a-clinging 
To the sky wliere stars are flinging 
Worlds of light because they love the 
daisies so. 

Then you've heard the South a-calling in 

the Spring 
When the crocus comes a-blooming, dainty 
thing; 
No matter where you wander, 
O'er these meories you'll ponder 
When you hear the South a-calling in the 
Spring. 

On the Koad to Sleepy-TowTQ. 

On the road to Sleepy-Town, 
As the wondrous sun goes down, 
Little hands and little feet, 
Wearied out with play complete, 
Now would stop at every sound 
On the road to Sleepy-Town. 

Busy has the whole day been. 
From the dawn until its end 



And the gentle twilight glow, 
Where the weary feet now go, 
Falls like benediction down 
On the road to Sleepy-Town. 

Just ahead, the G'ate of Dreams, 
Through the stillness casts its gleams: 
Just ahead the liand of sleep 
Reaches out to touch the cheek 
Of each little head of brown, 
Longing so for Sleepy-Town. 

Let me take you to my breast. 
Just this moment ere you rest. 
Let me hold the hands so sweet, 
As the daylight goes to sleep, 
Kiss the droopy eyelids down 
On the road to Sleepy-Town. 

Both of these books are typograhpic- 
ally perfect and beautiful. 

The illustrations are numerous and are 
decidedly the most pleasing and true-to- 
nature than I ever before saw in books of 
poetry. 

The picture of the leaf-strewn brook, 
in "The Call of the Woods" Is a gem. 

The cloud and water effect in the illus- 
tration which accompanies "From far 
Antilles to tropic Yucatan," is extremely 
fine. These wonderful pictures were 
probably made from photographs. 

T. E. W. 






•--♦-♦"♦-••»>-♦ 4 »-M- ■♦-■♦^♦^ 



I Watson's "Prose Miscellanies" 



X 



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This handsome volume contains the cream of Thos. E. Wat- 
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years. 

The book is being delivered, and is in most attractive form. 

The indications are that the book will have a tremendous sale. 
If you would have your order promptly hiled, mail it now, with 
I $1.10 accompanying. 

The orders will be filled according to the miller's rule of 
"first come, first served." 



This does not include mailing or expressage 

JEFFERSOMAN PUBLISHING CO., Thomson, Ga. 



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Di-opt. — "Did Alice's birthday party 
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"Yes, and several of her birthdays." — 
Boston Transcript. 



A Move in Time. — Augustus — "I'm not 
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father on the stairs, and I think I had 
better go before the foot lights." — London 
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Certainly In. — -"Is Mrs. De Brick in?" 
asked the visitor, calling at the London 
home of the Suffragette leader. 

"Yiss mum," said Norah. "She's in for 
six monts, mum." — Harper's Weekly. 



Not so Bad. — Editor — "There is a same- 
ness about your poetry, I regret to say," 

Magazine Poet (hastily) — "What?" 

Editor — "A sameness." 

Magazine Poet — "Oh. That's better. I 
thought you said saneness." — Puck. 



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THE JEFFERSONIAN PUB. CO., Thomson, Ga. I 



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To Readers of The Jefletsonians : 

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- >.)l^*IL«JB^»iAlW -JIB ■ 



TRIAL OF JESUS FROM A LEGAL STANDPOINT 

By W. J. GAYNOR. Mayor of New York City, and Formerly Supreme Court Justice 

Jesus was not the victim of a mob but was tried and condemned in a court of law. 
Was the trial fair? Was the arrest lawful? What was the charge and was it a 
crime in law? Was the court duly constituted? Had it jurisdiction? Did the 
evidence support the verdict? Was the sentence legal? Was Jesus denied any 
lawful right? Ought the Appellate Court to have reversed the judgment had the 
great Prisoner at the bar made appeal? Judge Gaynor's judicial review of this 
tragic event is one of the intellectual productions of the world. Published exclusively 
In Vol. II Sellers' Classics just off the press. Daniel Webster's speech against a 
man charged with murder also prblished and many masterpieces of literature found 
in no other book. 321 pages. Price $2.00. 

Vol. I. (distinct from Vol. 11.) contains great jury trials and legal arguments. 
You hear Beach's burning words in the damage suit against Henry Ward Beecher 
for leading the plaintiff's wife astray, and the eloquent Tracy in the minister's 
defense. You hear Delmas in the Thaw case picture Evelyn's life along the primrose 
path. You hear Prentiss in Kentucky's greatest murder trial and Susan B. Anthony's 
dramatic response to the court that condemned her. You hear Clarence Darrow and 
Senator Borah in Haywood's recent trial, and you stand for two hours with the 
mighty Voorhees as he invokes the unwritten law in behalf of an erring sister's 
brother who killed the man "that plucked the flower from the garden of honor and 
flung it away in a little while, withered and dead." You hear Ingersoll, Seward. 
Lewis, Rayner, Brady and other thought and language masters plead for the heart 
treasures of life. 314 pages. Price $2.00. 

Both books handsomely bound and illustrated. Sold separately or together. 
Shipped prepaid. If either is not all we claim money refunded and ten per cent 
additional as interest thereon. 

CLASSIC PUBLISHING CO., Box 5. Baxley. Ga. 



In writing to fidvertisers please mention Wfltsoo's. 



ADVERTTSTNG SECTION. 



TKe Progressi ve Democrat 

Published at THOMSON, GEORGIA 

A Weekly Paper Dealing With State Issues 

J. D. WATSON, THOS. E. WATSON, 

Editor. Contributing Editor. 

Independent Fearless Non= Partisan 

FIFTY CENTS PER YEAR 



THE JEFFERSONIAN PUBLISHING COMPANY 
TKomson, Georgia 



" Rooseveltian Fact and Fable" 



Ab the Loud Noise is again a candidate for th« Presidency, you should see 
"the other side" of him. To Jake Riis and others. Mr. T. R. is a hero: to Mrs. Annie 
Riley Hale and oiTiers, he is an uproarious Humbug. 

Read her book, and then decide for yourself what hie really is. There isn't a 
dull page in the volume, and the man who can successfully answer Mrs. Hale will 
be able to command his own price, during the campaign that is now getting under way. 

Clip the coupon, enclose a money order for a dollar, and the book will come 
postpaid. Mr. Watson has read it and speaks of it in the highest terms. 



, ltl2. 

MRS. ANNIE RILEY HALE, 

No. • West 66th St., 
New York City. 

Bncloaed please find one dollar, for which mall me yo«r Roosevelt book. I saw 
your aA. In Wataon'a. 



-/ 



In writing to advertisers please mention Watson'w, 



ADVERTISING SECTION. 



Dr. Irvine K. Mott's Method of 
Kidney Treatment 

restores cell function of the kidney not de- 
stroyed, arrests and prevents furtlicr spreading 
of the disease. His nietliods for treating kidney 
affections have been tested by the Cincinnati 
Post. A full detail of this investigation or test 
can be had by addressing him as below. 

Dr. Mott is a graduate of a Cincinnati medical 
college, class 1883, and afterward took instruc- 
tions abroad, later becoming a specialist and in- 
vestigator of kidney diseases. For nearly twenty 
years he has revealed to science that kidney dis- 
eases can be checked, the patient restored to 
normal weight and enabled to resume work. 

The following Is a statement from Dr. Mott: 
"My method is intended to arrest tlie disea.se, 
even though it has destroyed most of the kidney, 
and to preserve intact that portion not vet de- 
stroyed. The medicines I use are for the pur- 
pose of neutralizing the poisons that form a 
toxine that destroys the cells in the tubes of the 
kidneys, and my success in the treatment of kid- 
ney diseases is enough to convince physician and 
patient alike, that science has mastered a hither- 
to 'incTirable disease, physiologically speaking.'" 
Dr. Mott invites the afflicted to send their 
symptoms and to ask for his free expert opinion. 
He will send you his essay on kidney troubles. 

Correspondence should be directed to 

IRVINE K. MOTT, M. D. 

32? Mitchell Butldinir, - CINCINNATI, O. 



THE MENACE 

I'ublished at Aurora, Missouri. 
Subscription Price 50c. a Year. 
In riul).s of Four or More, 25c. 

Most Aggressive Anti- Catholic 
Paper in America 

Hated and Feared by the Roman Hierarchy 

Haled because it exposes the evil genius 
and tlie damnable intrigues of the Roman 
Catholic Political Machine, which is the 
"deadliest menace to American liberties and 
civilization." 

Feared because it refuses to be swerved 
from its purpose to arouse the American peo- 
ple to the evils of Catholicism and thwart 
tlie Roman hierarchy in its avowed purpose 
to make America Catholic. 

A paper which has secured 50,000 subscrib- 
ers in less than nine montlis, and for the sup- 
pression of wliich tlie Roman hierarchy is 
petitioning Congress for special legislation, 
should interest every true American. 

A postal card will bring a sample copy, but 
you had better send a dollar for a year's sub- 
scription for yourself and three of your 
friends. 

Address 



THE MENACE 



Aurora, 



Missouri 



t»»t» ♦ ♦♦♦♦♦♦-f-M-^ 



•■>»4-»-M-»>»-"M- -fr>-f-f ^»^M-H 



BE SURE ANTO READ XHIS! 



:: A NEW BOOK 



BY 



XHOS. F. LOCKHARX ^^ 

DEAR FRIEND: 

It may be that you have read my other books but, whether you have or irot, I trust 
you will order this new one, entitled "CHEERFUL CHATS WITH FAR-AWAY FRIENDS." 
While conducting a department in a St. Louis daily newspaper, I requested the readers 
iZ i,^^ ^^^ about their troubles if they thouglit I could help them in any way. This 
if.^i, T 'J"'*® freely, and I now publish their questions and my replies in book form, 
which I think makes a very unique and interesting book — something out of the ordinary, 
as it gives you a peep into an invalid's mail box; which is sure to prove both interesting 
and amusing. It will also show yf>u that other people have troubles as well as yourself, 
and Just how prone they are to worry over the many petty trials and vexations of life. 

In spite of the fact that I have been lying in one position, without a rest or change 
In any way whatever, for the past twenty-four vears, I have cultivated the habit of 
looking on the sunny side of life, and you will find that all my books breathe a spirit of 
true optimism that cannot help but cheer and uplift all who read. 

I sincerely hope you. reader, will encourage me by ordering this last book of mine. 
It contains my picture, and the price is only 50 cents. 

Nine years ago my mother passed away to her eternal home and left me helpless 
and destitute, to earn my support the best I could. This I have done, with God's help, 
by writing books. I have written several, titled as follows: 

"TWENTY-FOUR YEARS IN A MATTRE.SR OR.AVE." Price 29 cents. This is a 
story of my life, and gives an amusing account of my trials with fake doctors. Orders for 
this bonk have come from everv State in the Union and seven foreign countries. 

"IDEAS OF AN INVALID." 30 cents. Is just what Its title implies, my Ideas on 
religion. 

"PLAIN TALKS AND TALES," being a collection of sketches and short stories. 
Price 40 cents. 

I live alone with my nurse and earn our support by the sale of these books It Is the 
only way open to me. God spared me one eye. a finger and thumb so I could write and 
care for myself. I have done my best. Won't you help me with an order? 

When ordering books be sure to send registered letter, P. O. or Express order Other- 
Wise It must he at vour own risk. 

THOMAS F-. LOCKKART, Dept, J., Wellington. Missouri 

-♦»»♦♦♦ » ♦♦♦♦♦♦♦ •♦•-♦^^-♦-♦-♦-♦♦♦^^M-f •»-♦-♦♦♦♦♦ ♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦» 
In writing to advertisers please mention AVatson's. 



ADVERTISING SECTION. 



]■ ! — ! ■! IT nac 



WATSON^S 
WEEKLY JEFFERSONIAN 

Is a Fearless, Independent Newspaper, 
handling all subjects relating to the Politi- 
cal or Religious welfare of our country,- 

THOS. E. WATSON, - Editor. 

If you want to keep posted on National 
Politics ; if you want to note the trend of 
the times in a religious sense ; if you want 
to know more about the farce known as 
"Foreign Missions;" if you want to real- 
ize just what the Roman Catholics are 
doing to gain more strength in this country, 



READ 



The Weekly Jeffersonian 



ONE DOLLAR PER YEAR. 



THE JEFFERSONIAN PUBLISHING COMPANY 

THOMSON, GEORGIA 



:■: 



ADVERTISING SECTION. 



Why is the soda cracker to- 
day such a universal food ? 

People ate soda crackers 
in the old days, it is true 
— but they bought them 
from a barrel or box and 
took them home in a paper 
bag, their crispness and 
flavor all gone. 

Uneeda Biscuit — soda 
crackers better than any 
ever made before — made 
in the greatest bakeries in 
the ^vvorld — baked to per- 
fection — packed to perfec- 
tion — kept to perfection 
until you take them, oven- 
fresh and crisp, from their protect- 
ing package. Five cents. 

NATIONAL BISCUIT 
COMPANY 



f 



In writing to advertisers please mention Watson's. 



What " Sociali^s and Socialism'' Is 

First: A book of 158 pages. 

Second: An exhaustive study of the subject. 

Third: A thorough analysis and refutation of the "Bible of 
Socialism," Karl Marx' "Capital." 

Fourth: An exposition of the causes which led to the inequal- 
ities of wealth, and a statement of the remedies which would restore 
conditions to an equitable basis. 

Mr. Watson considers this book to be fully equal to anything that 
he has ever done. There is more of his wide reading, knowledge of 
history, his life-long experience, his reasoning power, and his prose 
poetry, in "Socialists and Socialism" than is contained in any of his 
literary works. Price, postpaid, 55c. 



What "Bethany" Is 

The town of Thomson covers the site of an old-time Baptist 
church which was named Bethany. No vestige of the ancient building 
remains. Only a few neglected graves mark the spot. 

In describing Plantation life as he knew it, in picturing Thomson 
and its neighboring farms during the great Civil War, Mr. Watson 
chose the name of the old Baptist church for his book. 

It is not only a love story of a young Confederate soldier, but is 
a thorough presentation of both sides of the controversy which ended 
in the mighty clash of arms. Price, postpaid, $1.31. 



What the "Waterloo" Book Is 

It is the most up-to-date description of the most dramatic battle 
in history. 

Two of the greatest soldiers the world ever knew commanded two 
of the best armies that ever took the field. 

The combat was one of the most Titanic that ever took place. And 
Napoleon had Wellington completely whipped, had not a fresh army 
of Prussians, under Blucher, struck him on the right flank. Then all 
was lost; and the clock of human progress in Europe was set back 
fifty years. 

It is a thrilling story. 

The book is bound in cloth. Price, postpaid, $1.10. 



THE JEFFERSONIAN PUBLISHING COMPANY, 
Thomson, Georgia. 



im::M 



GENERAL DANIEL E. SICKLES, while 
Minister to Spain, married a Spanish woman, a 
Roman CathoHc. 

After hving together a few years, they separated, 
the wife returning to Spain. 

In 1905 she came back to New York, but not 
to Hve with the General. 

Some months ago, it was currently reported that 
the General was in great distress because he could 
not redeem certain precious souvenirs, art treasures, 
etc., that were in pawn. 

Only a few days since, the papers stated that 
Mrs. Sickles had paid $8,000 to liberate the General's 
beloved objects of art. 

And now (Sept. 17th), comes a formal with- 
drawal of General Sickles from the Guardians of 
Liberty. 

Says he did not know the nature of it, etc. 
^Pleads the baby- act piteously, and hardly seems 
to know who Ex-Congressman Charles D. Haines 
is, although Haines lives and owns property in New 
York, where the old General resides. 

The priests have used the Spanish woman to 
good purpose. 

The General's next step will perhaps be to kneel 
to Papa, and kiss the Italian's foot. 



WATSON'S ROMAN CATHOLIC HIERARCHY is 
now in book form. Price $1.00. Remit by P. O. 
pioney order, not by bank check. 

JEFFERSONIAN PUBLISHING CO., Thomson, Ca. 



em^^BasssBB 



VOSE 



1^ ¥ Tk 'l^T/'^^ have been established over 60 YEARS. By our system 
I-' I it\ 1^ V / T of pay merits every family in moderate circumstances can 
*■ *■■*■ ^■■^ ^ ■V>' 1^ ___ „ VOSE Piano. We take old instruments in ex- 
change and df liver the new piano in your home free of expense. Write for Cata- 
logue D and explanations. VOSE & SONS PIANO CO., Boston. Mass.